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SECOND EDITION. Introduction. This overview contains information that: . Explains the basic functions, dynamics and ballistics of the crossbow;. Reviews the experience of states in which the crossbow has been adopted as an archery game management tool; and .

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SECOND EDITION


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Introduction

This overview contains information that:

  • Explains the basic functions, dynamics and ballistics of the crossbow;

  • Reviews the experience of states in which the crossbow has been adopted as an archery game management tool; and

  • Compares crossbows to other archery equipment.

2.


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National Percentage of Bowhunter Participation

*

*

  • Total hunters 2001 2005 2006

  • Total hunters 13,034 14,570 12,510

  • Bow & Arrow 3,070 3,250 3,501

  • Percentageof Bow hunters of Total Hunters:

  • 23.5% 22.0% 28%

Sources: US Fish and Wildlife 2001 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting & Wildlife associated recreation – page 83 of 116

* 2005, 2006 US Fish and Wildlife: Unpublished

3.


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Minnesota Hunter Retention: Firearms/Archery

Usage Peak at age 39-44

4.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, DNR ELS Database, 2000.


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Power Stroke

  • The distance the string

  • travels:

  • Crossbows - approx 12”

  • Vertical Bows - approx 20” to 22”

12” Power Stroke

Crossbows require a heavier draw weight to generate the same energy that propels the arrow downrange.

20” Power Stroke

5.


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Arrow Trajectory(@ 300 ft/second)

6.


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High Performance Crossbows vs. Vertical Compound Bows - FPS & Energy

* Fastest Vertical Compound Bow ** Fastest Crossbow (Difference at 50 yards: 12”)

7.


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High Performance Crossbows vs. Vertical Compounds BowArrow Trajectory (Total inches of drop.)

* Fastest Vertical Compound Bow ** Fastest Crossbow (Difference at 50 yards: 12”)

8.


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High Performance Crossbows vs. Vertical Compounds BowArrow Trajectory (Total inches of drop.)

E = MC x 2

BASIC FOOT POUNDS OF ENEGRY ARROW CALCULATIONS

Summary:

Do to the similar shooting characteristics of a vertical bow as compared to a crossbow, over the range that deer are shot at, means hunters using either a vertical bow or a crossbow have relatively equal changes to hit the deer due to the equipment.

Key

X 30” Compound 350 Grain 300 FPS

O 20” Crossbow 432 Grain 300 FPS

9.


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Safety – Violations – Success Rates

SAFETY - Since Ohio first legalized crossbows in 1976 through the 2003-04 season:

  • * 19 accidents involved crossbows - 15 were self-inflicted.

  • *12 accidents involved bow – 7 were self-inflicted

  • VIOLATIONS - During a five- year period in the 1990’s 633 hunting implements were seized by wildlife officers.

  • 95% were firearms – 2.7% were vertical bows – 2.2% were crossbows

  • SUCCESS RATES - 2001-02 Hunting Season shows harvest percentagefor crossbows hunters was 15% with vertical hunters also having the same 15% success rate.

10.

Source: Ortman, W. M. (2007). Archery incidents in Ohio, 1976-2006. Unpublished data, Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Wildlife, Columbus, Ohio.


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Crossbow Hunting Season Expansion Evolution of Crossbows in the US & Canada

  • A 30 year time line

States where crossbows are legal in all or part of Archery Season are shaded green.

12.


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Crossbow Hunting Season Expansion Evolution of Crossbows in the US and Canada

30 yrs ago

Ohio

Arkansas

Ontario

13.


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Crossbow Hunting Season Expansion Evolution of Crossbows in the US and Canada

30 yrs ago

Ohio

Arkansas

Ontario

20 yrs ago

Wyoming

British Columbia

N.W. Territories

Nunavut

14.


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Crossbow Hunting Season Expansion Evolution of Crossbows in the US and Canada

30 yrs ago

Ohio

Arkansas

Ontario

20 yrs ago

Wyoming

British Columbia

N.W. Territories

Nunavut

Since 2002

*Indiana

Georgia

Alabama

*Maryland

Tennessee

Virginia

Pennsylvania

Kentucky

Florida

South Carolina

Louisiana

Quebec

  • * Crossbows legal for part of the archery season

15.


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Crossbow Hunting Season Expansion Evolution of Crossbows in the US and Canada

Crossbows legal in Urban

Areas. Handicap permits total

over 67,000, out

of the 1,000,000 hunters

in 2006.*

TODAY

Crossbows Legal

In All or Part of

Of Ohio’s 325,000

hunters,

140,000 hunted with

crossbows during the 2006

hunting season. **

Crossbows Legal

During Gun Season,

for Elderly or Handicapped

Crossbows use

Significantly

Restricted

* 2006 US Fish & Wildlife Survey page 104 – table 56

16.

** Source: Napier. T.L. and C.T. Smith. (2006). Ohio hunter participation rates. Unpublished data, Ohio State University, Columbus.


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Crossbow Surveys and Studies

  • New Jersey Hunter Crossbow Opinion Poll

  • Cornell University/Kentucky Crossbow Survey

  • Georgia Wildlife Harvest 2003-2004 Crossbow Discussion

17.


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N.J. Survey

18.


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Cornell UniversityKentucky Crossbow Survey (2005)

Respondents were asked if they would support or oppose expanding crossbow season from its current time frame to a time frame that runs concurrently with archery season.

  • 63% supported crossbow expansion

  • 25.3% opposed crossbow expansion

Source: Cornell University Crossbow Study Pg 23 of 43

Note - The Cornell University is based on completed surveys from 3,240 hunters and 360 landowners.

The report was conducted for Kentucky Department of Fish & Wildlife Resources.

19.


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Cornell UniversityKentucky Crossbow Survey (2005)

Reasons for opposition

Source: Cornell University Crossbow Study Pg 27 of 43

20.


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Harvest of Wildlife in Georgia2003 – 2004 Crossbow Discussion

Harvest of Wildlife in Georgia

2003-2004 Crossbow Discussion*

  • 13.5% of respondents previously used crossbows under the handicap rule

  • 31.1% of respondents had no prior experience using archery equipment for hunting - approximately 6,900 hunters

  • Success rate for compound bow hunters + .51 deer per hunter

  • Success rate for crossbow hunters + .49 deer per hunter

  • Estimated increase in archery hunters + 9,300

  • Approximately half (46.4%) of new archers using crossbows were over 50 year old.

  • Note – Crossbows placed in archery season during 2002-03 season.

Source: Nick Nicholson, Senior Wildlife Biologist, GA Department of Natural Resources 2003 – 2004 Crossbow Discussion Pg 3 of 4

20.


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Georgia Archers Hunters Age Analysis

Figure 1:Age Structure of 2003-2004 Georgia Crossbow Hunters

Usage Peak at age 40 -44

Figure 2:Age Structure of 2003-2004 Georgia Vertical Bowhunters

Harvest of Wildlife in Georgia, Crossbow 4of 4

21.


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BY STATE

  • Georgia

  • Virginia

  • Maryland

  • Tennessee

Crossbow Statistical Information

22.


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Georgia Deer Harvest Summaries


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Virginia Hunter Participation

Note 3 – In order to compare 2008 to previous years Archery totals, the 16,133 Combo Licenses need to be subtracted from the Crossbow total which makes that total 83,108 as compared to the 103,072 as shown.

FACT

A Net increase of 6.9% participants in 3 years.

See note 3

24.

Source: VA Department of Game and Inland Fisheries. Reproduced with permission from Carman Houston, IMS Department.


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Page 25


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Maryland – Total Harvest Comparison 2005-2006

Maryland Annual Deer

Harvest Report

Season05/0606/0707/08

Bow21,38221,99122,064

Crossbow3,1743,3423,585

Total94,05291,93092,208

Harvest

Source: Maryland Department of Natural Resources – Annual Reports 2005 - 2008

Page 26

Source: Maryland DNR. Written and Compiled by the Deer Project Staff: L. Douglas Hotton, Deer Project Leader. Maryland Deer Project 2005-2006 Annual Report Table 21


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Tennessee – Harvest Comparison

  • Prior to 2005, Gun kills were a combination of both modern gun and muzzleloader ** Prior to 2005 Archery kills were a combination of both modern archery and crossbow.

  • Summary – It would appear a number of vertical bow hunters converted to crossbows and when combined with new crossbow hunters resulted in a two year period of a total archery hunters increase of 4.1%

2.2% 3.0%

Crossbow Percentage of total harvest

Page27.

Source: Big Game Harvest Report 2006-2007, Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency Technical Report 07-01 Management Issue


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WISCONSIN PARTICIPATION

Note: Age 65 is the first time all hunters are allowed to use a crossbow during the full

archery season. The archery classification shown includes both vertical bows and crossbows.

.

Source : Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources 2008

Page 28


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Statewide Harvest By Method - Arkansas

Table 2A 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 2006-2007

Method

Vertical Bows 6,232 8,720 7,793 10,614

Crossbows 2,946 4,374 3,650 4,608

Muzzleloaders 10,992 18,248 13,911 24,851

Modern Gun 86,965 100,115 103,641 122,673

Entire Season 107,135 131,457 128,995 165,663

____________________________________________________________________

Total Archery 9,178 13,094 11,443 15,222

Vertical Bows 6,232 8,720 7,793 10,614

Crossbows 2,946 4,374 3,650 4,608

% Total Harvest %Total Harvest %Total Harvest %Total Harvest

Total Archery 8.6% 10.0%8.9% 9.1%

Vertical Bows 5.8% 6.6% 6.0% 6.4%

Crossbows 2.7% 3.3% 2.8% 2.8%

Increases

05/06 v.s. 06/07

+15.5%

+24.9

+26.5%

+20.7%

Source: Arkansas Game and Fish. 2003-2004 Deer Season Summary. Page 7 of 28.

Arkansas Game and Fish 2005-2006 Deer Summary. Pages 8 and 10 of 40.

Page 29.


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Ohio 2006 Hunter Survey

730,000*

*Total greater than 325,000 due to hunters hunting with more than one weapon during hunting season

78.4% of Ohio Hunters hunted with Archery equipment in Fall 2006; 255,000 of 325,000 paid hunters

Page 30

Source: Napier. T.L. and C.T. Smith. (2006). Ohio hunter participation rates. Unpublished data, Ohio State University, Columbus.


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OHIO DEER HARVEST BY WEAPONSUMMARY 2004 -2008

2004 – 05 2005 – 06 2006 – 07 2007 – 08

TOTAL % CHANGE TOTAL % CHANGE TOTAL % CHANGE TOTAL % CHANGE

Gun 123,041 5.9 116,517 -5.3 137,242 N/A 121,183 -11.7

Crossbow 35,729 21. 5 33,658 -5.8 38,489 14.4 42,292 9. 9

VerticalBow 24,897 17.6 26,432 6.2 29,423 11. 3 36,347 23.5

Archery 60,626 19. 9 60,090 -0. 9 67,912 13. 3 76,639 15. 8

Combined

Total 216,443 9. 4 209,513 -3. 2 237,912 13. 3 232,854 -1. 9

N/A# -Bonus 2 day Gun season added in 2006 – 07 season

Total* totals do not equal since all forms of hunting are not shown, such as primitive and special hunts.

Source: Ohio Division of Wildlife, Annual Deer Harvest Report

Summary of 2004 – 5 , Pg. 2 Table 1

Summary of 2005 – 06 , Pg. 2 Table 1

Summary of 2006 – 07, Pg. 2 Table 1

Summary of 2007 – 08, Pg. 2 Tale 1

Page 31


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Page 33


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Cleveland

Metro

Cleveland

Metro East

Akron

Ohio Urban Unit Deer Harvest

2007

By County, By Weapon

34.


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“For the 8th consecutive year vertical bow hunters have set harvest records and the annual increases have been enough to push the total archery harvest to record-status each year as well.”

“Crossbow hunters also set a record this year by harvesting 42,292 deer, nearly 10% more than last year.”

Source: Summary of 2007-08 Ohio Deer Season,

Waterloo Wildlife Research Station Publication 304 (R508) Page 3 of 18

Page 35.


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