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Intense combat: direct escalation. WFSC 422 Ethology Presentation 5.1. Dr. Jane M. Packard, WFSC TAMU [email protected] Ibex contests: cost/benefit?. Ibex.mpg. Moose contests: cost/benefit?. Moosfigh.mpg. COSTS Loss of access to resources Severe injury- or death. BENEFITS

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intense combat direct escalation

Intense combat: direct escalation

WFSC 422 Ethology

Presentation 5.1

Dr. Jane M. Packard, WFSC TAMU [email protected]

function intense combat

Loss of access to resources

Severe injury- or death


access to food & mates

produce more offspring

Function- intense combat
functions moose antler
Functions: moose antler
  • Tips- blind opponent
  • Flat “palm”- shove opponent
  • seasonal shedding- “tradeout” damaged weapons
function non specialized weapons
FUNCTION: Non-specialized weapons
  • Zebra hooves
    • adaptation for running on plains
    • secondary function- kicking (effective against predators as well)
  • Zebra teeth
    • adaptation for eating grasses
    • secondary function- bite neck or rump
cause physiological mechanisms fight flight
CAUSE: Physiological mechanisms- fight/flight
  • glands (adrenal, pituitary, hypothalamus, gonads)
  • hormones (CRF, ACTH, CORT, + testosterone)
  • neurotransmitters- rapid fire response
    • fight- noradrenaline (“superman”)
    • freeze- adrenaline & noradrenaline
    • flee- adrenaline (escape)
intense internal response to escalated conflict
Intense internalresponse to escalated conflict

SOURCE: Fig. 6.3 in Jensen, E. 1998. Teaching with the Brain in Mind. ASCD: Alexandria

probability of learning
Probability of learning

SOURCE: Fig. 6.4 in Jensen, E. 1998. Teaching with the Brain in Mind. ASCD: Alexandria

  • Conflict between “strangers” differs in function and mechanism from conflict within social groups (Unit 6)
  • Function may be analyzed in terms of costs (injury, death) and benefits (access to mates and/or food)
  • Cause (Unit 3): “brain/body” connection (hypo/pituitary/adrenal)
action items
Action Items
  • Do answers for Q5.1, Q5.2
  • Search Google Scholar for “deer evolution”
  • Search Web of Science for “Wingfield JC 2005”
  • Post examples and sources on WebCT Discussion Unit 5