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Intense combat: direct escalation. WFSC 422 Ethology Presentation 5.1. Dr. Jane M. Packard, WFSC TAMU j-packard@tamu.edu. Ibex contests: cost/benefit?. Ibex.mpg. Moose contests: cost/benefit?. Moosfigh.mpg. COSTS Loss of access to resources Severe injury- or death. BENEFITS

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Intense combat: direct escalation

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Intense combat direct escalation l.jpg

Intense combat: direct escalation

WFSC 422 Ethology

Presentation 5.1

Dr. Jane M. Packard, WFSC TAMU j-packard@tamu.edu


Ibex contests cost benefit l.jpg

Ibex contests: cost/benefit?

Ibex.mpg


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Moose contests: cost/benefit?

Moosfigh.mpg


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COSTS

Loss of access to resources

Severe injury- or death

BENEFITS

access to food & mates

produce more offspring

Function- intense combat


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Specialized weapons- antlers

Moosantl.mpg


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Functions: moose antler

  • Tips- blind opponent

  • Flat “palm”- shove opponent

  • seasonal shedding- “tradeout” damaged weapons


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Non-specialized weapons: zebra teeth & hooves

Zebraint.mpg


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FUNCTION: Non-specialized weapons

  • Zebra hooves

    • adaptation for running on plains

    • secondary function- kicking (effective against predators as well)

  • Zebra teeth

    • adaptation for eating grasses

    • secondary function- bite neck or rump


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CAUSE: Physiological mechanisms- fight/flight

  • glands (adrenal, pituitary, hypothalamus, gonads)

  • hormones (CRF, ACTH, CORT, + testosterone)

  • neurotransmitters- rapid fire response

    • fight- noradrenaline (“superman”)

    • freeze- adrenaline & noradrenaline

    • flee- adrenaline (escape)


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Intense internalresponse to escalated conflict

SOURCE: Fig. 6.3 in Jensen, E. 1998. Teaching with the Brain in Mind. ASCD: Alexandria


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Probability of learning

SOURCE: Fig. 6.4 in Jensen, E. 1998. Teaching with the Brain in Mind. ASCD: Alexandria


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SUMMARY

  • Conflict between “strangers” differs in function and mechanism from conflict within social groups (Unit 6)

  • Function may be analyzed in terms of costs (injury, death) and benefits (access to mates and/or food)

  • Cause (Unit 3): “brain/body” connection (hypo/pituitary/adrenal)


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Action Items

  • Do answers for Q5.1, Q5.2

  • Search Google Scholar for “deer evolution”

  • Search Web of Science for “Wingfield JC 2005”

  • Post examples and sources on WebCT Discussion Unit 5


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