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Gas Turbine Technology : Flying Machine to Ground Utilities. P M V Subbarao Professor Mechanical Engineering Department. A White Collar Power Generation Method…. Progress in Rankine Cycle. The most Unwanted Characteristic of Rankine Group of Power Generation Systems.

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Gas Turbine Technology : Flying Machine to Ground Utilities

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Gas turbine technology flying machine to ground utilities l.jpg

Gas Turbine Technology : Flying Machine to Ground Utilities

P M V Subbarao

Professor

Mechanical Engineering Department

A White Collar Power Generation Method…


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Progress in Rankine Cycle


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The most Unwanted Characteristic of Rankine Group of Power Generation Systems

  • The amount of cooling required by any steam-cycle power plant is determined by its thermal efficiency. 

  • It has nothing essentially to do with whether it is fuelled by coal, gas or uranium. 

  • Where availability of cooling water is limited, cooling does not need to be a constraint on new generating capacity. 

  • Alternative cooling options are available at slightly higher cost.

  • Nuclear power plants have greater flexibility in location than coal-fired plants due to fuel logistics, giving them more potential for their siting to be determined by cooling considerations.


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Cooling Problems !!!!

  • The bigger the temperature difference between the internal heat source and the external environment where the surplus heat is dumped, the more efficient is the process in achieving mechanical work. 

  • The desirability of having a high temperature internally and a low temperature environmentally. 

  • In a coal-fired or conventionally gas-fired plant it is possible to run the internal boilers at higher temperatures than those with finely-engineered nuclear fuel assemblies which must avoid damage. 

  • The external consideration gives rise to desirably siting power plants alongside very cold water.


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Steam Cycle Heat Transfer

  • For the heat transfer function the water is circulated continuously in a closed loop steam cycle and hardly any is lost. 

  • The water needs to be clean and fairly pure.

  • This function is much the same whether the power plant is nuclear, coal-fired, or conventionally gas-fired. 

  • Cooling to condense the steam and surplus heat discharge.

  • The second function for water in such a power plant is to cool the system so as to condense the low-pressure steam and recycle it. 

  • This is a major consideration in siting power plants, and in the UK siting study in 2009 all recommendations were for sites within 2 km of abundant water - sea or estuary.


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Water, Water & Water ….!!!!!

  • A nuclear or coal plant running at 33% thermal efficiency will need to dump about 14% more heat than one at 36% efficiency. 

  • Nuclear plants currently being built have about 34-36% thermal efficiency, depending on site (especially water temperature). 

  • Older ones are often only 32-33% efficient.  

  • The relatively new Stanwell coal-fired plant in Queensland runs at 36%, but some new coal-fired plants approach 40% and one of the new nuclear reactors claims 39%.


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History & Repetition

  • 1791: A patent was given to John Barber, an Englishman, for the first true gas turbine.

  • His invention had most of the elements present in the modern day gas turbines.

  • The turbine was designed to power a horseless carriage.

  • 1872: The first true gas turbine engine was designed by Dr Franz Stikze, but the engine never ran under its own power.

  • 1903: A Norwegian, Ægidius Elling, was able to build the first gas turbine that was able to produce more power than needed to run its own components, which was considered an achievement in a time when knowledge about aerodynamics was limited.

  • Using rotary compressors and turbines it produced 11 hp (massive for those days).

  • He further developed the concept, and by 1912 he had developed a gas turbine system with separate turbine unit and compressor in series, a combination that is now common.


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  • 1914: Application for a gas turbine engine filed by Charles Curtis.

  • 1918: One of the leading gas turbine manufacturers of today, General Electric, started their gas turbine division.

  • 1920: The practical theory of gas flow through passages was developed into the more formal (and applicable to turbines) theory of gas flow past airfoils by Dr A. A. Griffith.

  • 1930: Sir Frank Whittle patented the design for a gas turbine for jet propulsion.


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THE WORLD‘S FIRST INDUSTRIAL GAS TURBINE SET – GT NEUCHÂTEL


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4 MW GT for Power Generation


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First turbojet-powered aircraft – Ohain’s engine on He 178

The world’s first aircraft to fly purely on turbojet power, the Heinkel He 178.

Its first true flight was on 27 August, 1939.


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Steam Turbine Vs Gas Turbine : Power Generation

  • Experience gained from a large number of exhaust-gas turbines for diesel engines, a temp. of 538°C was considered absolutely safe for uncooled heat resisting steel turbine blades.

  • This would result in obtainable outputs of 2000-8000 KW with compressor turbine efficiencies of 73-75%, and an overall cycle efficiency of 17-18%.

  • First Gas turbine electro locomotive 2500 HP ordered from BBC by Swiss Federal Railways

  • The advent of high pressure and temperature steam turbine with regenerative heating of the condensate and air pre-heating, resulted in coupling efficiencies of approx. 25%.

  • The gas turbine having been considered competitive with steam turbine plant of 18% which was considered not quite satisfactory.

  • The Gas turbine was unable to compete with “modern” base load steam turbines of 25% efficiency.

  • There was a continuous development in steam power plant which led to increase of Power Generation Efficiencies of 35%+

  • This hard reality required consideration of a different application for the gas turbine.


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6

4

2

5

1

3

Anatomy of A Jet Engine


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Variation of Jet Technologies


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Thermal Energy Distribution


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6f

7f

6p

7p

Ideal Jet Cycles

~1970s

Aero Rejected Engines & Aero Derivative Engines

4

TurboJet

3

5

6j

T0

Turbofan

1

2

Turboprop

Direction


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Brayton Cycle

1-2 Isentropic compression (in a compressor)

2-3 Constant pressure heat addition

3-4 Isentropic expansion (in a turbine)

4-1 Constant pressure heat rejection


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pv & Ts diagrams

SSSF Analysis of Control Volumes Making a Brayton Cycle:


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Specific Energy equation of SSSF :

No Change in potential energy across any CV

Calorically perfect and Ideal Gas as working fluid.


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1 –2 : Specific work input :

2 – 3 : Specific heat input :

3 – 4 : Specific work output :

4 – 1 : Specific heat rejection :

Isentropic Processes:


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Constant Stagnation Pressure Processes:


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Pressure Ratio Vs Efficiency


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Pressure Ratio Vs Specific Workoutput


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hth

wnet

h,%


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1872, Dr Franz Stikze’s Paradox


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