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Fibers. Chapter 14. Fibers are the basic unit of all textiles Yarn is a continuous strand of fibers Fabric is a textile product made by knitting or weaving yarns together. Fibers are combined to make yarns Yarns are combined to make fabrics. Fiber Characteristics.

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Fibers

Chapter 14


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  • Fibers are the basic unit of all textiles

  • Yarn is a continuous strand of fibers

  • Fabric is a textile product made by knitting or weaving yarns together


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  • Fibers are combined to make yarns

  • Yarns are combined to make fabrics


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Fiber Characteristics

  • Each fiber has its own characteristics

  • Fiber source (natural or manufactured) determines characteristics

  • Fibers may be short, long, curly or straight


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Fiber Characteristics

  • Strength – the ability to withstand pulling and twisting

  • Shrinkage – the ability to maintain size

  • Warmth – the ability to maintain body temperature

  • Durability – the ability to hold up in repeated use


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Fiber Characteristics

  • Absorbency – the ability to take in moisture

  • Wrinkle resistance – the ability to resist creasing

  • Resiliency – the ability to spring back when crushed or wrinkled


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Selecting Fibers

  • Knowing fiber characteristics will help you choose the appropriate fiber for the end use

  • What fiber characteristic would be appropriate for:

    • Coat - Dress shirt

    • Bath towel - Work pants

    • Carpet - Shoe laces


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Natural Fibers

  • The most common natural fibers are cotton, linen, wool and silk

  • The two categories of natural fibers are:

    • Cellulosic fibers – fibers from plant sources like cotton, flax, ramie, hemp, and jute

    • Protein fibers – fibers from animal sources like wool, silk, mohair, cashmere, camel’s hair, alpaca, and angora


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Manufactured fibers

  • More widely used than natural fibers

  • Used in clothes, accessories, furniture, and cars

  • Wide variety of fiber characteristics

  • Rayon was the first commercially produced fiber in 1924. It was marketed as “artificial silk.”


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Manufactured Fibers

  • The two categories of manufactured fibers are:

    • Cellulosic fibers – make from wood chips dissolved in chemicals. Examples are rayon, acetate, triacetate and lyocell.

    • Noncellulosic or Synthetic fibers – made from combining the chemicals like nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen and carbon. Examples are nylon, polyester, olefin, acrylic, and spandex.


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Manufacturing Process

  • Step 1 – The solid raw material is changed into a liquid.

  • Step 2 – The liquid is extruded (forced or pushed) through a spinneret with very tiny holes

  • Step 3 – The liquid is hardened into a fiber


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Manufactured Fiber Modifications

  • Fibers can be thick or thin

  • Cross section can be round, flat or shaped

  • The color, shine, wrinkle-resistance, absorption, and strength can be varied

  • Fibers can be crimped, textured, coiled or looped

  • Fibers can be blended with other manufactured or natural fibers


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