Do you think grizzly bears should be reintroduced in the Selway Bitterroot Ecosystem in the State of Idaho? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Do you think grizzly bears should be reintroduced in the Selway Bitterroot Ecosystem in the State of Idaho?. _______Agree _______Disagree. Key Concepts. Attitudes Classical, Operant, Observational Elaboration Likelihood Model. Attitudes. What is an attitude?

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Do you think grizzly bears should be reintroduced in the Selway Bitterroot Ecosystem in the State of Idaho?

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Do you think grizzly bears should be reintroduced in the Selway Bitterroot Ecosystem in the State of Idaho?

_______Agree

_______Disagree


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Key Concepts

  • Attitudes

  • Classical, Operant, Observational

  • Elaboration Likelihood Model


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Attitudes

  • What is an attitude?

  • Why do we care about attitudes?

  • How are they formed?

  • How do we measure attitudes?

  • Do attitudes predict behavior?

  • Can attitudes be changed?


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Attitudes

How a person responds to the world; favorable or unfavorable manner (+, -). A persons general predisposition to evaluate other people, objects, and issues favorable or unfavorably.

A person’s attitude influences the way in which he or she responds to the world.

They influence:

Attention-how we notice things

Behavior-persons actions because of attitude

Contain an evaluative component:

Positive or negative

Intensity


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Environmental Attitude

  • A learned predisposition to respond in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to the environment.


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Attitudes

Wolves do not belong in Idaho, they are bad!!

Small, frequent and low intensity fires are good for ecosystem health!!

I think global warming is the most serious environmental problem in the world today!!


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Why Do We Care?

  • Understanding and measuring attitudes is important when dealing with environmental conflicts.

  • Help us develop education programs in an attempt to involve the public in decision making.

  • Influence perceptions and behavior toward issues.


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Changing Attitudes?

Question:

Do you think natural resource managers at a federal level are trying to change the public’s attitudes about management strategies for our public lands?

Examples: Ecosystem Management, Prescribed Fire, Endangered Species Recovery, Forest Health Initiative


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Why do we care?


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Attitudes

How are attitudes formed?

Classical-Child overhears continued responses begins to associate subject with negative or positive responses

Operant-Child is reinforced by authority figure

Observational-Watching the behavior of someone or something else


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Attitudes

How measure?

Should grizzly bears be re-introduced in Idaho?

Yes_______No_________

Likert Scale

____Strongly Agree

____Agree

____Undecided

____Disagree

____Strongly Disagree

Indirect Methods--Observe Behavior


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What Leads to Strong Attitudes?

  • Group polarization (groups enforce them)

  • Elaboration (think about it a lot)

  • Side bets (invested resources: house, car)


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What do strong attitudes do?

  • Resist change

  • Bias information processing

  • Durable and have impact


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When are Attitudes LIKELY to Change?

When people have weak attitudes or non-attitudes

Low experience or low knowledge of a topic or fact

Attitudes are “Beliefs +Evaluation”, so changing beliefs may change attitudes.


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Elaboration Likelihood Model

  • More we think about, process, or “elaborate on” a message, the more important are its claims.

  • Less we elaborate on it, the more important are factors such as source credibility, creating feelings, eye-catching color, etc.

  • Two cognitive “routes” to persuasion: central route, and peripheral route.


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Central Route of ELM

  • Audience is motivated and capable of processing arguments of a message.

  • Considered, thoughtful weighing of arguments; in favor of it or counter to it.

  • The greater the ratio of favorable arguments to counter-arguments, the stronger the message is.

  • In these circumstances, you should:

    • use clear, reasoned, logical arguments

    • explain reasons for desired changes


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Peripheral Route of ELM

  • Low attention to message content

  • Reliance on heuristics

  • In these circumstances, you should

    • catch attention

    • create favorable thoughts

    • keep message short and sweet

    • have constant reminders


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Just because you can change an attitude, does it mean you can change behavior?


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What factors “interfere” with attitude-behavior consistency?

  • Individual

    • psychological states

    • evaluations of merits of behavior change

    • knowledge

    • vested interest


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What factors “interfere” with attitude-behavior consistency?

  • Situational

    • lack of ability/opportunity to act

    • timing of message

    • significant others

    • specificity


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So, to know if persuasion will work, you need to know about...

  • Individual characteristics

    • motivations for acting- level of vested interest

    • psychological states- knowledge

  • Situational characteristics

    • timing- ability/opportunity to act

    • social group issues - distractions

  • Message characteristics

    • quality of arguments

    • peripheral cues


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So What?Are we in the midst of a scientific revolution in how we view and manage natural resources?

Competing Paradigms

Wise Use Movement

Deep Ecology

?

Ecosystem Management

Multiple Use


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