Criticisms of ethnographic analogy
Download
1 / 20

CRITICISMS OF ETHNOGRAPHIC ANALOGY - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 232 Views
  • Updated On :

CRITICISMS OF ETHNOGRAPHIC ANALOGY. Depresses Time and Denies Change The Problem of “Equifinality” Many paths to the same outcome Is the archaeological record “frozen Behavior”? Can we directly translate archaeological expressions into meaning social, political, or ritual patterns?

Related searches for CRITICISMS OF ETHNOGRAPHIC ANALOGY

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'CRITICISMS OF ETHNOGRAPHIC ANALOGY' - LionelDale


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Criticisms of ethnographic analogy l.jpg

CRITICISMS OF ETHNOGRAPHIC ANALOGY

Depresses Time and Denies Change

The Problem of “Equifinality”

Many paths to the same outcome

Is the archaeological record “frozen Behavior”?

Can we directly translate archaeological expressions into meaning social, political, or ritual patterns?

Binford’s definition of the archaeological record as static and contemporary. Translate statics into past dynamics


Slide2 l.jpg

Is the Archaeological record like Pompeii

ARCHAEOLOGISTS DECIDE TO EVALUATE THIS QUESTION


Slide3 l.jpg
SEVERAL METHOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OFTHE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ARTIFACTS AND MEANINGFUL CULTURAL BEHAVIOR

  • RECORD FORMATION PROCESSES

  • MID-RANGE THEORY

  • ETHNOARCHAEOLOGY


Slide4 l.jpg

New archaeologists committed to anthropological archaeology. But before you could address questions about culturally meaningful behavior, the nature of the archaeological record had to be investigated

Here’s the problem:

1. The archaeological record is composed of artifacts on the surface and buried. Those artifacts are “static”, meaning they don’t interact.

2. New archaeologists are interested in what people do and how they do it ( that’s active or dynamic). The question is how to move from statics to dynamics?

3. And before you do that you have to consider whether the archaeological record has changed over time.


Michael schiffer l.jpg
MICHAEL SCHIFFER But before you could address questions about culturally meaningful behavior, the nature of the archaeological record had to be investigated


Record formation processes l.jpg
RECORD FORMATION PROCESSES But before you could address questions about culturally meaningful behavior, the nature of the archaeological record had to be investigated

Several components to this model:

  • The systematic relationship between artifact acquisition, production, use , discard and the formation of the archaeological record. Schiffer wants to know the relationship between life histories of artifacts, the archaeological record, and cultural behavior

    B) Breaks culture down into a set of activities that transform material into something useful track the life histories of artifacts

    C) differentiates kinds of artifact contexts SYSTEMIC CONTEXT

    ARCHAEOLOGICAL CONTEXT


Assumptions that schiffer makes to construct systemic and archaeological context l.jpg
ASSUMPTIONS THAT SCHIFFER MAKES But before you could address questions about culturally meaningful behavior, the nature of the archaeological record had to be investigatedTO CONSTRUCT SYSTEMIC AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL CONTEXT

  • CULTURE IS A SYSTEM ( HAVE YOU HEARD THAT BEFORE?)

  • HUMAN ACTIVITY IS A TRANSFORMATION OF ENERGY THAT TYPICALLY INVOLVES ARTIFACTS

  • ARE THERE OTHERS? WHAT ABOUT ARCHAEOLOGICAL LAWS?


Slide8 l.jpg

WHAT ARE RECORD FORMATION PROCESSES? But before you could address questions about culturally meaningful behavior, the nature of the archaeological record had to be investigatedWHEN DO THEY OPERATE?WHY DO ARCHAEOLOGISTS STUDY THEM?WHAT IS SCHIFFER’S ULTIMATE GOAL? WHAT DOES HE WANT TO “RECONSTRUCT?


Mid range research binford s methology for linking statics to dynamics l.jpg
MID-RANGE RESEARCH But before you could address questions about culturally meaningful behavior, the nature of the archaeological record had to be investigatedBinford’s methology for linkingStatics to Dynamics

Research with the Nunamiut at Anatuvak Pass


What is mid range theory it s not general theory l.jpg
What is Mid-Range Theory? But before you could address questions about culturally meaningful behavior, the nature of the archaeological record had to be investigatedIT’S Not general Theory

  • Because the archaeological record is contemporary, can not know the past directly. Can only know the past indirectly through “static” artifacts

  • Required to make that linkage are observations, experiments, and analysis designed to link the present statics with past dynamics:

    record formation

    ethnoarchaeology, experimental archaeology


Questions regarding mid range theory based on the binford article l.jpg
Questions regarding Mid-Range Theory But before you could address questions about culturally meaningful behavior, the nature of the archaeological record had to be investigated[based on the Binford article]

  • What are the goals of Binford’s article: Dimensional Analysis of Behavior and Site Structure?

  • Does Binford build a model to address these goals? Or does he address through the analysis of a single place

  • What are expedient artifacts? What are curatedartifacts?

  • Is Schiffer’s distinction between systemic and archaeological context relevant to this article? How

  • What is the site function of the Mask site? Is there a relationship between site function and artifact deposition?

  • Is Binford’s approach to the relationship between cultural activity and artifact different than Schiffer’s? How?

  • What does Binford want to explain?


Culture process general systems theory l.jpg
Culture Process: General Systems Theory But before you could address questions about culturally meaningful behavior, the nature of the archaeological record had to be investigated

The goal of Culture Process: To create explanations of culture change…. THE CAUSES OF CULTURE CHANGE

Systems Theory (or General Systems Theory) was the initial model that was used to construct explanations.

So: we need to ask what is system? And how is that definition built into the structure of systems theory


Slide13 l.jpg

Systems Structure But before you could address questions about culturally meaningful behavior, the nature of the archaeological record had to be investigated


Definitions l.jpg
Definitions But before you could address questions about culturally meaningful behavior, the nature of the archaeological record had to be investigated

  • A System: A bounded entity that is made up of component parts. The parts of “interdependent”. That means that the action of one component affects the action of another.

  • All components of a system have boundary conditions. This means that each component has a range within which they operate Because all components have a range, the system itself has a range within which it can operate.

  • Homeostasis: maintenance of a system within its boundary conditions

  • Postive feedback: component deviations are amplified

    • This can change the system

  • Negative feedback: Component deviations are depressed and system is maintained at the current or previous state


Systems theory more definitions l.jpg
SYSTEMS THEORY, MORE DEFINITIONS But before you could address questions about culturally meaningful behavior, the nature of the archaeological record had to be investigated

  • This definition of system is functional.

    • Function: as in each component solves a problem

    • Function: as in each component has a goal—

      • Keep the system running… human adaptive system

  • CULTURE AS A SYSTEM

    • Components, many of which are not observable archaeologically

    • Each of those components have goals and boundary conditions

    • The system has goal---- human survival


Slide16 l.jpg

Archaeological Systems Theory Model But before you could address questions about culturally meaningful behavior, the nature of the archaeological record had to be investigated

Outputs----Change

Culture T1

Inputs:

Environment

Subsistence

Settlement

Population

Culture T2


How does a cultural systems theory cause change l.jpg
HOW DOES A CULTURAL SYSTEMS THEORY CAUSE CHANGE? But before you could address questions about culturally meaningful behavior, the nature of the archaeological record had to be investigated

  • System change caused by one or more components exceeding their boundary conditions ( positive feedback)

  • But what throws a component out of equilibrium? New Archaeologists relied on external causes:

    • Climate change, population growth, resource depletion.


Systems theory in mesoamerica l.jpg
Systems Theory in Mesoamerica But before you could address questions about culturally meaningful behavior, the nature of the archaeological record had to be investigated

What is the role of Systems Theory in this article?

What are the causes of change from hunting and gathering to agriculture?

Why do Mesoamerican macrobands become sedentary?

Kent Flannery


Strengths of systems theory explanations l.jpg
Strengths of Systems Theory Explanations But before you could address questions about culturally meaningful behavior, the nature of the archaeological record had to be investigated

  • A major improvement over culture historical explanations of change :invasion, independent invention, or diffusion

  • Provided a framework for discussing new adaptation: agriculture or the evolution of the state.


Weaknesses of systems theory l.jpg
Weaknesses of Systems Theory But before you could address questions about culturally meaningful behavior, the nature of the archaeological record had to be investigated

  • Causes of change were external (And Post-processualists really really disliked this aspect)

  • System size and complexity required ‘major’ events to result in change

  • Description of how change occurs; not why


ad