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Community Structure – spatial arrangement of its individuals and populations. Chapter 8. Community Characteristics. Physical Appearance – relative size, stratification and distribution of its populations and species Species Diversity – number of species

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Chapter 8 l.jpg

Community Structure – spatial arrangement of its individuals and populations

Chapter 8


Community characteristics l.jpg
Community Characteristics individuals and populations

  • Physical Appearance – relative size, stratification and distribution of its populations and species

  • Species Diversity – number of species

  • Species Abundance – numbers of each species

  • Niche Structure – number of ecological niches and how they interact


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Biodiversity individuals and populations

  • Species Diversity – variety of different species

  • Genetic Diversity – variability among individuals within a species

  • Ecological Diversity – variability of ecosystems


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Most Biodiversity individuals and populations

  • Tropical Rain Forests

  • Coral Reefs

  • Deep Sea

  • Large Tropical Lakes


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Factors Affecting individuals and populationsSpecies Diversity

  • Latitude

  • Depth (in aquatic) – species diversity increases from surface to about 2,000 m


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© 2004 Brooks/Cole – Thomson Learning individuals and populations

25

25

Snails

Tube worms

20

20

15

15

Species diversity

10

10

5

5

Coast

Deep Sea

Coast

Deep Sea

0

0

0

2,000

4,000

6,000

0

2,000

4,000

6,000

Depth (meters)

Depth (meters)


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Factors Affecting individuals and populationsSpecies Diversity

  • Pollution (in aquatic) – decrease in diversity and abundance because pollution


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Species diversity increases with…. individuals and populations

  • Increasing solar radiation

  • Increasing precipitation

  • Decreasing elevation

  • Pronounced seasonal variations


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Species Equilibrium Model individuals and populations

  • The number of species found on an island depends on:

  • The rate at which new species immigrate to the island

  • The rate at which species become extinct on the island

  • At some point they reach an equilibrium that determines the island’s average number of different species


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© 2004 Brooks/Cole – Thomson Learning individuals and populations

High

Rate of immigration

or extinction

Low

Equilibrium number

Number of species on island

(a)

Immigration and extinction rates


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Rates are affected by: individuals and populations

  • Size

  • Distance


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Smaller island has lower diversity because… individuals and populations

  • Smaller target for potential colonizers

  • Smaller islands have higher extinction rates because they have fewer resources and less diverse habitats for colonizing species


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© 2004 Brooks/Cole – Thomson Learning mainland will have the higher immigration rate and thus higher diversity

High

Rate of immigration

or extinction

Low

Small island

Large island

Number of species on island

(b)

Effect of island size


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© 2004 Brooks/Cole – Thomson Learning mainland will have the higher immigration rate and thus higher diversity

High

Rate of immigration

or extinction

Low

Far island

Near island

Number of species on island

(c)

Effect of distance from mainland


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Types of Species mainland will have the higher immigration rate and thus higher diversity

  • Native Species – species that normally live and thrive in a particular ecosystem

  • Nonnative Species – (invasive species or alien species) species that migrate into an ecosystem or are deliberately or accidentally introduced

  • Indicator Species – species that serve as early warnings of damage to a community or ecosystem


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Types - continued mainland will have the higher immigration rate and thus higher diversity

  • Keystone Species – species that play a pivotal role in the structure and function of an ecosystem because of their strong interactions with other species and the fact that they process material out of proportion to their numbers or biomass.


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How Do Species Interact? mainland will have the higher immigration rate and thus higher diversity

  • Intraspecific competition – competition between members of the same species

  • Interspecific competition – competition between members of two or more different species for food, space or any other limited resource.


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Interspecific Competition mainland will have the higher immigration rate and thus higher diversity

  • Interference competition – a species limits another’s access to some resource.

  • Exploitation competition – species have roughly equal access to a specific resource but differ in how fast or efficiently they exploit it


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Competitive Exclusion Principle mainland will have the higher immigration rate and thus higher diversity

  • Species cannot occupy the same ecological niche indefinitely.


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High mainland will have the higher immigration rate and thus higher diversity

Relative population density

Low

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

Days

Each species grown alone

Paramecium

aurelia

Paramecium

caudatum


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High mainland will have the higher immigration rate and thus higher diversity

Paramecium

aurelia

Relative population density

Paramecium

caudatum

Low

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

Days

Both species grown together


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Resource Partitioning mainland will have the higher immigration rate and thus higher diversity

  • Species that compete for the same resources evolve adaptations that reduce or avoid competition or an overlap of their fundamental niches.


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Predator - Prey Interactions mainland will have the higher immigration rate and thus higher diversity

  • Predation – members of one species (predator) feed directly on all or part of a living organism of another species (prey)


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Bombardier beetle mainland will have the higher immigration rate and thus higher diversity

Span worm

Wandering leaf insect

Foul-tasting monarch

butterfly

When touched, the

snake caterpillar

changes shape to look

like the head of a snake

Poison dart frog

Viceroy butterfly mimics

monarch butterfly

Hind wings of io moth

resemble eyes of a

much larger animal


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Symbiosis mainland will have the higher immigration rate and thus higher diversity

  • A relationship in which species live together in an intimate association. There are three types of symbiosis


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Three types of symbiosis mainland will have the higher immigration rate and thus higher diversity

  • Parasitism – one species (the parasite) feeds on part of another organism (the host) by living on or in the host. Examples include: tapeworms, fleas, ticks, mosquitoes, mistletoe plants and fungi


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  • Mutualism – two species involved in a relationship interact in ways that benefit both.

  • Benefits include: having pollen and seeds spread; being supplied with food, or receiving protection

  • Examples include: mycorrhizae that live in plant roots; bacteria in the digestive tracts of animals; birds on the backs of black rhinos that remove insects


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Mutualism interact in ways that benefit both.


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Ecological Succession benefits but the other is neither harmed nor helped.

  • The gradual change in species composition in response to changing environmental conditions.

  • Two types: primary and secondary

  • Primary is the gradual establishment of biotic communities on bare rock

  • Secondary is the reestablishment of biotic communities


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Pioneer Species benefits but the other is neither harmed nor helped.

  • Before a community of plants can become established there must be soil present

  • Depending on the climate, it can take several hundred to several thousand years to produce fertile soil

  • Soil formation begins when pioneer species attach themselves to rock (lichens and mosses)


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Mature oak-hickory forest shrubs.

Young pine forest

Shrubs

Perennial

weeds and

grasses

Annual

weeds

Time


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Secondary Succession shrubs.

  • Begins in an area where the natural community has been disturbed, removed or destroyed

  • Examples include abandoned farms, burned forests, polluted streams, flooded land


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Factors Affecting Succession shrubs.

  • Facilitation – one set of species makes an area suitable for species with different niche requirements

  • Inhibition – an early species hinders the establishment and growth of other species

  • Tolerance – late successional plants are unaffected by plants at earlier stages of succession


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  • Ecosystems are continually changing of succession to an earlier stage

  • Cannot predict the course of a given succession

  • Cannot view it as preordained progress toward an ideally adapted climax community


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Stability of succession to an earlier stage

  • All living systems contain feedback loops (positive and negative) that interact to provide some stability over each system’s expected life span

  • This stability is maintained by constant dynamic change in response to changing environmental conditions


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Ecosystem Stability of succession to an earlier stage

  • Inertia or persistence – the ability of a living system to resist being disturbed or altered

  • Constancy – ability of a living system to keep its numbers within the limits imposed by the available resources

  • Resilience – ability of a system to bounce back after a disturbance (not drastic)


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