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18 th International Roundtable on Business Survey Frames Beijing, China October 17-22, 2004. Analysis of Statistical Units Delineated by OECD Member Countries. Bongho Choi & Denis Ward. Enterprises. Group I (Legal Units = Enterprises):

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Analysis of statistical units delineated by oecd member countries l.jpg

18th International Roundtable on Business Survey Frames

Beijing, China October 17-22, 2004

Analysis of Statistical Units Delineated by OECD Member Countries

Bongho Choi & Denis Ward


Enterprises l.jpg
Enterprises

  • Group I (Legal Units = Enterprises):

    Austria, Czech Republic, Finland(developing a top-down model),

    France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg,

    Portugal, Slovak Republic.

  • Group II (Delineation by Profiling):

    • Bottom-up Approach: Belgium, Spain, Sweden

    • Top-down approach: Denmark (but close to Group I), Netherlands, UK

    • Unknown: Canada, US, Australia, Japan, NZ, Ireland, Norway, Poland, Switzerland

  • Group III (Under development): Mexico, Korea, Turkey


Issues on enterprises l.jpg
Issues on Enterprises

  • Data comparison problem between “Legal Units = Enterprises” vs. “Delineation by Profiling”

    • The former is generally greater than the latter.

  • How to treat the franchise form of doing business ?

    • Enterprise or Establishment?

  • Un-incorporated enterprises are excluded in some countries (Japan and Korea)

  • More harmonization is needed in Enterprises by Size Classes and Business Demography.

    • Size categories (including the upper limit) are different.


Enterprise groups l.jpg
Enterprise Groups

  • Countries that delineate this unit:

    • Canada (2,500 Corporate Families), Australia (8,000), NZ (n.a.), Denmark (n.a.),

    • Finland (920), France (28,962), Ireland (200), Italy (19), Netherlands (90,000),

    • Portugal (n.a.), Spain (21,654), Sweden (26,000), UK (100,000)

  • Do you think that the numbers are comparable between countries?

  • Countries where statistics are not available: Mexico, US, Japan, Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Luxembourg, Poland, Slovak Republic, Switzerland, Turkey.


Issues on enterprise groups l.jpg
Issues on Enterprise Groups

  • Terminology : corporate families in Canada, conglomerates (large & complex enterprises) in the US.

  • Relationship between enterprise groups and complex enterprises is not clear.

  • Number of enterprise groups is not comparable between countries: the method of delineation and the concept are different.

  • Is it necessary to split the enterprise groups into the categories like the splitting of enterprises?

  • Guideline to compile statistics on multi-national enterprise groups?


Local unit or establishment l.jpg
Local Unit (or Establishment)

  • Most of OECD Member Countries are observed to delineate this unit : 29 out of 30.

Issues on Local Unit(or Establishment)

  • Relationship is not clear.

  • Terminology and Concept is not yet fully harmonized.

  • Non-European Countries (Establishment)

    European Countries (Local Unit)

    Austria (Local Unit = Kind-of-activity Unit)

    Denmark (Local Unit = Establishment)


Kau and local kau l.jpg
KAU and Local KAU

  • About half of OECD Member Countries delineate this unit ‘KAU’.

  • Methods of delineation

    • KAU as an operational part of the enterprise.

    • By profiling the enterprise.

    • By aggregating local units.

    • By aggregating local KAUs.

    • Through a combination of various methods.

  • In the case of Local KAU, only three countries are doing delineation: Denmark, Finland, Sweden.


Issues on kau and local kau l.jpg
Issues on KAU and Local KAU

  • Not easy to understand the differences in methods.

  • Concept is different between countries.

    • Austria : KAU = Establishment.

    • Finland : KAUs = secondary activities and/or branches, and

      local KAU = Establishments.

    • Germany and Netherlands : KAUs = Enterprise

    • Denmark and Germany : Local KAU = Local Unit

  • Terminology

    Australia : Type of activity unit


Legal unit l.jpg
Legal Unit

  • 24 countries contain legal units in their BR/BF.

  • Basic source for legal units : VAT registers and other relevant administrative


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Concluding Remarks

  • There are many cases in borderlines between

    • Enterprises and Local units(Establishments)

    • Enterprises groups and Complex enterprises

    • KAUs and Enterprises

    • Local KAUs and Local units(Establishments)

  • Need for further studies on enterprises from the following perspective:

    • Ownership (autonomous, partner, linked)

    • Diversity (single, vertically integrated, linked, un-related)

    • Size (micro, small, medium, large)

    • Legal form (sole proprietorships, etc.)

  • Need for further studies on application of statistical units to short-term and structural business statistics.


Application of statistical units l.jpg
Application of Statistical Units

  • For short-term Statistics (EU Council Regulation)

    • KAU for production, turnover, number of persons employed, etc.

    • Enterprise for retail trade and repair sector.

  • For Structural Business Statistics (EU Council Regulation)

    • Enterprise for yearly business statistics.

    • Local unit (or Local KAU) for regional statistics.

    • KAU for turnover, number of persons employed in industrial sector.

  • In reality, it is not easy to follow the guidelines.


Status of statistical units delineated in business registers frames by oecd member countries l.jpg
Status of Statistical Units delineated in Business Registers/Frames by OECD Member Countries




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