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What about la Francophonie?. Dr. Will Thompson The University of Memphis TFLTA 2008. What is the present socio-economic reality of those countries and regions that comprise “La Francophonie”, especially in terms of their place in a global economy?

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What about la francophonie l.jpg

What aboutla Francophonie?

Dr. Will Thompson

The University of Memphis

TFLTA 2008


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What is the present socio-economic reality of those countries and regions that comprise “La Francophonie”, especially in terms of their place in a global economy?

How can we use this information as the basis for classroom discussion and/or student projects on la Francophonie?


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What is “La Francophonie”?

  • Term first used in 1871

  • Vague and unofficial concept

  • Historical, geographical, political, and cultural implications

  • Its definition can fluctuate depending on the context in which it is used

  • “La Francophonie est une communauté de peuples très divers vivant sur les cinq continents et unis par la langue française.”


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What is La Francophonie?

  • Those countries where French is the official language [or one of them]

  • Those countries where French is the native language of a significant percentage of the population

  • Those countries in which French is a major language of communication

  • Those countries in which the French language has important cultural and historoical significance


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Why “La Francophonie”?

  • EDUCATE students about the diversity of the French-speaking world

  • ADVOCATE for the importance of French as a global language

  • EXTRAPOLATE from this information to expose students to a myriad of social and economic issues affecting the world today


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ALGERIE

BELGIQUE

BENIN

BURKINA FASO

BURUNDI

CAMBODGE

CAMEROUN

CANADA [QUEBEC]

COMORES

CONGO

CONGO [Rép. Dém.]

COTE D’IVOIRE

DJIBOUTI

FRANCE

GABON

GUINEE

GUINEE EQUATORIALE

HAITI

LIBAN

LUXEMBOURG

MADAGASCAR

MALI MAROC

MAURICE

MAURITANIE

MAYOTTE

MONACO

NIGER

REPUBLIQUE CENTRAFICAINE

RWANDA

SENEGAL

SEYCHELLES

SUISSE

TCHAD

TOGO

TUNISIE

VANUATU

VIETNAM

La Francophonie


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+ les “DOM-ROM” (or DROM)[Départments et Régions d’Outre-Mer]

  • GUADELOUPE

  • GUYANE FRANÇAISE

  • MARTINIQUE

  • MAYOTTE

  • NOUVELLE CALEDONIE

  • POLYNESIE FRANCAISE

  • REUNION

  • SAINT-BARTHÉLÉMY

  • SAINT-MARTIN

  • SAINT-PIERRE ET MIQUELON

  • WALLIS ET FUTUNA


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ORGANISATION INTERNATIONALEDE LA FRANCOPHONIE

55 États et gouvernements membres et 13 observateurs.

ALBANIEANDORREARMENIE [observateur]

AUTRICHE [observateur]BELGIQUEBENIN

BULGARIEBURKINA FASOBURUNDI

CAMBODGECAMEROUNCANADA

CANADA, N. BRUNSWICKCANADA, QUEBECCAP-VERT

CENTRAFRIQUECHYPRE [membre associé]COMM FRAN DE BELGIQUE

COMORESCONGOCONGO RD

COTE D’IVOIRECROATIE [observateur] DJIBOUTI

DOMINIQUEEGYPTEEX-REP YOUG. DE MACEDOINE

FRANCEGABONGEORGIE [observateur]

GHANA [membre associé] GRECEGUINEE

GUINEE BISSAUGUINEE EQUATORIALEHAITI

HONGRIE [observateur] LAOSLIBAN

LITUANIE [observateur] LUXEMBOURGMADAGASCAR

MALIMAROCMAURICE

MAURITANIEMOLDAVIEMONACO

MOZAMBIQUE [observateur] NIGERPOLOGNE [observateur]

REP TCHEQUE [observateur] ROUMANIERWANDA

SAINTE-LUCIESAO TOME ET PRINCIPESENEGAL

SERBIE [observateur] SEYCHELLESSLOVAQUIE [observateur]

SLOVENIE [observateur] SUISSETCHAD

TOGOTUNISIEUKRAINE [observateur]

VANUATUVIETNAM


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WHAT ARE SOME OF THE WAYS THAT WE CAN OBTAIN SOME PERSPECTIVE ON THIS LARGE NUMBER OF COUNTRIES AND REGIONS [MOST OF WHICH WE HAVEN’T VISITED AND PROBABLY WON’T ANY TIME SOON!]?


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Global Rankings

  • Population

  • Gross Domestic Product

  • GDP per capita

  • UN Human Development report

  • Global Competitiveness

  • Corruption Perceptions


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Population [The Top 12]

  • FRANCE [INCL. OVERSEAS]64,102,14019

  • CONGO [DR]62,636,00021

  • CANADA32,956,00036

  • MADAGASCAR19,683,00055

  • COTE D’IVOIRE19,262,00057

  • CAMEROUN18,549,00058

  • BURKINA FASO14,784,00063

  • NIGER14,226,00065

  • SENEGAL12,379,00070

  • MALI12,337,00071

  • TCHAD10,781,00075

  • BELGIQUE10,457,00077


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GDP

  • A region's gross domestic product, or GDP, is one of the ways for measuring the size of its economy. The GDP of a country is defined as the market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period of time. It is also considered the sum of value added at every stage of production of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period of time. [Source: www.wikipedia.org]

  • IN MILLIONS OF US DOLLARS, 2005

  • SOURCE: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

  • OUT OF 181 COUNTRIES


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GDP

  • FRANCE2,234,631,000,000 6

  • CANADA1,269,096,000,0008

  • BELGIQUE393,590,000,00017

  • SUISSE377,240,000,00020

  • LUXEMBOURG40,577,000,00065


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GDP [cont’d.]

  • CAMEROUN18,372,000,00088

  • COTE D’IVOIRE17,339,000,00091

  • SENEGAL9,242,000,000109

  • GUINEE EQUATORIALE9,135,000,000110

  • GABON9,124,000,000112

  • CONGO [REP. DEM.]8,543,000,000115

  • CONGO7,399,000,000119

  • TCHAD6,547,000,000122

  • MAURICE6,402,000,000124

  • MALI6,191,000,000128

  • BURKINA FASO6,055,000,000130

  • MADAGASCAR5,489,000,000132


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GDP [cont’d.]

  • BENIN4,760,000,000134

  • HAITI4,473,000,000135

  • NIGER3,550,000,000137

  • GUINEE3,317,000,000140

  • RWANDA2,397,000,000149

  • TOGO2,210,000,000151

  • REP CENTRAFRICAINE1,488,000,000155

  • BURUNDI908,000,000163

  • DJIBOUTI768,000,000165

  • SEYCHELLES749,000,000166

  • COMORES402,000,000172

  • VANUATU387,000,000173


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GDP per capita [2007][International Monetary Fund]

  • LUXEMBOURG79,6602

  • SUISSE39,9636

  • CANADA35,72912

  • BELGIQUE34,45814

  • FRANCE33,41418

  • GUINEE EQUAT.30,61022

  • GABON15,17741

  • SEYCHELLES14,41244

  • MAURICE11,27656


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GDP per capita [2]

  • VANUATU3,695106

  • CONGO3,512109

  • CAMEROUN2,124124

  • DJIBOUTI2,061126

  • COTE D’IVOIRE1,673133

  • SENEGAL1,666134

  • TCHAD1,478138

  • BENIN1,312142

  • HAITI1,311143

  • COMORES1,149147

  • GUINEE1,140148


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GDP per capita [3]

  • BURKINA FASO1,124149

  • MALI1,084150

  • MADAGASCAR935153

  • RWANDA867154

  • TOGO809155

  • REP CENTRAFRICAINE714160

  • NIGER628162

  • BURUNDI341166

  • CONGO [REP. DEM.]298167


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Human Development

  • The United Nations Human Development Report compiles the human development index that looks beyond GDP to a broader definition of well-being. The HDI provides a composite measure of three dimensions of human development: life expectancy, education, and standard living (measured by purchasing power parity, income).

    [Information adapted from the UNHD website]


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Human Development

  • CANADA4

  • SUISSE7

  • FRANCE10

  • BELGIQUE17

  • LUXEMBOURG18

  • SEYCHELLES50

  • MAURICE65


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GABON119

VANUATU120

GUINEE EQUAT.127

COMORES134

CONGO139

MADAGASCAR143

CAMEROUN144

HAITI146

DJIBOUTI149

TOGO152

SENEGAL156

GUINEE160

RWANDA161

BENIN163

COTE D’IVOIRE166

BURUNDI167

R.D. CONGO168

TCHAD170

REPUBLIQUE CENTRAFRICAINE171

MALI173

NIGER174

BURKINA FASO176

Human Development


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Global Competitiveness

The World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Report rankings are drawn from a combination of hard data and the results of the Executive Opinion Survey, a comprehensive annual survey conducted by the World Economic Forum, together with its partner institutes in the countries covered by the Report. This year, over 11,000 business leaders were polled in a record 125 economies worldwide.

[Information from WEC website]


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Global Competitiveness[2008-2009]

  • SUISSE2

  • CANADA10

  • FRANCE16

  • BELGIQUE19

  • LUXEMBOURG25

  • MAURICE56

  • SENEGAL95

  • BENIN104

  • CAMEROUN111

  • MADAGASCAR121

  • MALI114

  • BURKINA FASO123

  • BURUNDI126

  • TCHAD130


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Corruption Perceptions

TRANSPARENCY INTERNATIONAL

CORRUPTION PERCEPTIONS INDEX

The Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index ranks countries in terms of the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians. It is a composite index, a poll of polls, drawing on corruption-related data from expert and business surveys carried out by a variety of independent and reputable institutions. The CPI reflects views from around the world, including those of experts who are living in the countries evaluated.

[Information from Transparency International website]


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Corruption Perceptions

TRANSPARENCY INTERNATIONAL

CORRUPTION PERCEPTIONS INDEX 2007

COUNTRY RANKINGS [OUT OF 163]

  • SUISSE7

  • CANADA9

  • LUXEMBOURG12

  • FRANCE19

  • BELGIQUE21

  • MAURICE53

  • SEYCHELLES57

  • SENEGAL71

  • GABON84

  • MADAGASCAR94


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Corruption Perceptions

  • VANUATU98

  • BURKINA FASO105

  • RWANDA111

  • MALI118

  • BENIN118

  • NIGER123

  • BURUNDI131

  • CAMEROUN138

  • TOGO143

  • CONGO150

  • COTE D’IVOIRE150

  • REP CENTRAFRICAINE162

  • GUINEE168

  • GUINEE EQUATORIALE168

  • CONGO [REP. DEM.]168

  • TCHAD172

  • HAITI177


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US Trade with Francophone Countries

  • TOTAL TRADE WITH US [2006]

  • The Big Four [or Five]

  • CANADA [INCL. QUEBEC]536,000,000,000

  • QUEBEC82,000,000,000

  • FRANCE61,360,000,000

  • BELGIQUE35,700,000,000

  • SUISSE28,600,000,000


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US-Francophone Trade 2006

  • CONGO3,230,000,000

  • GUINEE EQUAT.2,290,000,000

  • TCHAD1,980,000,000

  • GABON1,490,000,000

  • HAITI1,310,000,000

  • LUXEMBOURG1,130,000,000

  • COTE D’IVOIRE849,000,000


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CAMEROUN394,000,000

MADAGASCAR326,000,000

MAURICE254,000,000

NIGER252,900,000

POLYNESIE FRANÇAISE166,000,000

GUINEE158,500,000

CONGO [R.D.]155,800,000

SENEGAL118,400,000

BENIN116,100,000

TOGO112,200,000

NOUVELLE CALEDONIE94,200,000

MARTINIQUE76,000,000

GUADELOUPE67,700,000

US-Francophone Trade 2006


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US-Francophone Trade 2006

MONACO65,500,000

MALI51,000,000

DJIBOUTI51,000,000

GUYANE FRANÇAISE33,800,000

REP CENTRAFRICAINE29,400,000

RWANDA20,600,000

SEYCHELLES19,600,000

BURKINA FASO19,100,000

VANUATU11,400,000

REUNION11,400,000

BURUNDI8,400,000

COMORES1,600,000

MAYOTTE300,000

WALLIS & FUTUNA200,000


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Total Trade with US [2002]Ranking of Francophone Countries

OUT OF 251 Countries and Territories

  • CANADA [INCL. QUEBEC]1

  • FRANCE9

  • BELGIQUE16

  • SUISSE24

  • GABON66

  • HAITI76

  • LUXEMBOURG80

  • GUINEE EQUATORIALE83

  • COTE D’IVOIRE89


Total trade with us 2002 ranking of francophone countries32 l.jpg

CAMEROUN101

MAURICE104

GUYANE FRANCAISE109

CONGO110

MADAGASCAR115

CONGO [REP. DEM.]116

GUINEE130

TCHAD131

POLYNESIE FRANCAISE133

SENEGAL151

DJIBOUTI158

GUADELOUPE160

NOUVELLE CALEDONIE163

NIGER166

BENIN170

SEYCHELLES171

MONACO177

MARTINIQUE180

BURKINA FASO182

TOGO189

MALI190

RWANDA192

REP. CENTRAFRICAINE197

COMORES206

REUNION208

VANUATU211

BURUNDI214

WALLIS ET FUTUNA227

MAYOTTE232

Total Trade with US [2002]Ranking of Francophone Countries


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What does the U.S. import from France? [$ for 2007]

  • Civilian aircraft4.82 billion

  • Medical equipment4.68 billion

  • Aircraft engines3.62 billion

  • Artwork/antiques2.70 billion

  • Petroleum products2.03 billion

  • Alcohol [other than wine]1.58 billion

  • Wine1.47 billion

  • Toiletries and cosmetics1.36 billion

  • Automobile parts1.00 billion


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US Direct Investment in Francophone Countries

US DIRECT INVESTMENT ABROAD 2005

[IN MILLIONS OF DOLLARS]

[RANKS OVERALL ARE FOR THE YEARS 1997-2000]

TOTAL2,069,983

CANADA234,831RANK: 2

SWITZERLAND83,424RANK: 5

LUXEMBOURG61,615

FRANCE60,860RANK: 8

BELGIUM36,733

AFRICA24,257

AFRICA*14,950

*NOT INCL. EGYPT, NIGERIA, SOUTH AFRICA


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Foreign Investment in US

FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN THE US 2005

IN MILLIONS OF DOLLARS

RANKS ARE FOR THE YEARS 1997-2000

  • TOTAL1,635,291

  • FRANCE 143,378RANK: 5

  • CANADA 144,033RANK: 6

  • LUXEMBOURG 116,736RANK: 7

  • SWITZERLAND 122,399RANK: 8

  • BELGIUM 9,712

  • AFRICA 2,564


Us aid to francophone countries 2004 2005 average source oecd l.jpg

CONGO [R.D.]166,000,000

HAITI123,000,000

MADAGASCAR61,000,000

RWANDA57,000,000

MALI52,000,000

BURUNDI49,000,000

GUINEE47,000,000

SENEGAL45,000,000

COTE D’IVOIRE32,000,000

BENIN26,000,000

NIGER25,000,000

BURKINA FASO19,000,000

REP. CENTRAFR.15,000,000

DJIBOUTI7,000,000

TOGO3,250,000

GABON2,300,000

VANUATU1,700,000

MAURICE700,000

COMORES15,000

GUINEE EQUAT.15,000

US Aid to Francophone Countries [2004-2005 average]Source: OECD


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Issues With Individual Countries

Using the previous indicators as a starting point, what can further investigation into the current socio-economic reality of the individual countries mentioned above reveal to us?


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Sources Used

  • BBC Country Profiles

  • U.S. Department of State

    [Background Notes]

  • CIA World Factbook

  • U.S. Department of Commerce

    [Country Commercial Guides]


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Belgique

  • Headquarters for EU and NATO

  • U.S. is #5 trading partner

  • 31.7% of population in Wallonie

  • Highest per capita employment in world in terms of car assembly

  • U.S. is #3 destination for Belgian tourists


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Burkina Faso

  • Significant gold reserves

  • Cotton is mainstay of economy

  • 90% of workforce in agriculture

  • China is the major trading partner, along with France


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Comores

  • Important exporter of vanilla, cloves, and perfume oil

  • World’s #2 producer of vanilla

  • Tourism potential?

  • 20+ coups and attempted coups since independence in 1975


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Congo [Brazzaville]

  • Oil production accounts for 39% of GDP and 89% of export earnings

  • Oil industry dominated by Total, but also Chevron and Texaco

  • Workforce is still two-thirds agricultural


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COTE D’IVOIRE

  • Very good infrastructure for a developing country

  • Produces 40% of world’s cocoa

  • Oil production growing substantially


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Gabon

  • Prosperous due to oil

  • Developing eco-tourism

  • Petroleum accounts for 43% of GDP and 81% of exports; U.S. is 53% of export market

  • #2 in world for manganese deposits [used in steelmaking]


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And interesting facts about some other Francophone countries:

  • Guinée: has perhaps one-half of world’s reserves of bauxite [for aluminum]

  • Luxembourg: 79% of GDP is related to banking

  • Maurice: 90% of cultivated land is dedicated to sugar cane

  • Nouvelle Calédonie: has one-fourth of world’s nickel deposits


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And some more facts…

  • Niger: #3 in world for uranium deposits

  • Rwanda: tea accounts for 60% of exports

  • Sénégal: Dakar, with its new airport, is an increasingly important transportation hub

  • Seychelles: the highest GDP per capita in Africa; Heinz is the largest employer [tuna processing plant]

  • Togo: #4 world exporter of phosphates


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VIVE LA FRANCOPHONIE!


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