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Week 3. Apollo & Artemis Demeter and Persephone Hermes Dionysus. Apollo and Artemis. Ca. 460 BCE Apollo and Artemis avenging Leto’s honor. ARTEMIS. Daughter of ZEUS and LETO Twin sister of APOLLO Born on the island of DELOS. The Lady of Animals. Has lions in her retinue

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Week 3

Week 3

Apollo & Artemis

Demeter and Persephone

Hermes

Dionysus


Apollo and artemis
Apollo and Artemis

  • Ca. 460 BCE Apollo and Artemis avenging Leto’s honor


Artemis
ARTEMIS

  • Daughter ofZEUS and LETO

  • Twin sister of APOLLO

  • Born on the island of DELOS


The lady of animals
The Lady of Animals

  • Has lions in her retinue

  • Horns and skin of pray hung on tree in honor of Artemis

  • Since Homer: a girl


Niobe and her children
NIOBE AND HER CHILDREN

  • Leto dishonored in Thebes: queen NIOBE boasts to have borne seven sons and seven daughters

  • Apollo kills all sons; Artemis all daughters

  • Niobe turned to stone


Myths of artemis 2 acteon
Myths of Artemis 2ACTEON

  • Hunting, A. saw Artemis in her bath

  • She transformed him into a stag

  • His dogs tore him to pieces


Callisto
CALLISTO

Zeus, disguised as Artemis, raped her friend Callisto

  • Artemis expelled Callisto

  • Callisto gave birth to ARCAS

  • Hera turned her into a bear

  • Arcas almost killed his mother

  • Zeus transformed both into constellations


Orion
ORION

  • ORION tried to seduce Artemis

  • The goddess produced a scorpion that killed him

    OR

  • Orion pursued the PLEIADES

  • They were all transformed into constellations (SIRIUS, Orion's hunting dog, became the Dog Star)


Characteristics of artemis
CHARACTERISTICS OF ARTEMIS

  • Vehement virgin with characteristics of a fertility goddess

  • Moon-goddess linked with the lunar cycle and menstrual period

  • Goddess of nature itself personifying its pristine purity



Hecate an artemis like figure
HECATE an Artemis-like figure

  • Fertility goddess of the Underworld depicted with a blazing torch

  • Accompanied by fierce hounds

  • Goddess of the crossroads

  • Skilled in the arts of black magic


Hecate and the crossroads
Hecate and the crossroads

  • To the Romans Hecate was “Trivia” of the crossroads

  • Received offerings of food called Hecate's suppers


Delos birthplace of apollo
DELOS: BIRTHPLACE OF APOLLO

  • In the hymn “To Delian Apollo" there is no mention of Artemis

  • Apollo nursed on nectar and ambrosia miraculously becomes a mighty god

  • Curved bow and the lyre become his attributes

  • Prophecy to mortals his domain


Sanctuary of apollo at delphi
SANCTUARY OF APOLLO AT DELPHI

  • Apollo chose a place under Mt. PARNASSUS for his oracle and temple.

  • He slew a dragon named PYTHO

  • Apollo given the epithet PYTHIAN, his prophetess, PYTHIA

  • Apollo from Lycia in Asia Minor

  • Ephebos, kouros

  • Phoibos = Fox-like

  • Lykeios = wolf-like


The omphalos
The Omphalos

“The Navel" an archaic

stone shaped like an egg.

Explanations:

  • marks the center of the world

    b) marks the tomb of Python

    c) Is the stone Cronus swallowed instead of Zeus



Pythian games
Pythian Games

  • From Apollo’s sanctuary at Delphi

  • Ca. 470 BCE



Apollo s loves sibyl
APOLLO'S LOVES: SIBYL

  • Title of the prophetess of Apollo

  • The original Sibyl from Cumae in Italy was pursued by Apollo

  • When she rejected him, the god granted her immortality without eternal youth

  • She eventually to became only a voice


Apollo s loves cassandra
Apollo’s loves: CASSANDRA

  • Daughter of the Trojan King Priam

  • Agreed to give herself to Apollo and received the gift of prophecy.

  • Changed her mind

  • Apollo made sure that her true prophecies would never be believed


Apollo s loves cyrene
Apollo’s Loves: CYRENE

  • Apollo fell in love with her when he saw her wrestling with a lion.

  • He took her to the city in Libya that would bear her name.

  • They had a son Aristaeus, a keeper of bees.


Apollo s loves daphne 1
Apollo’s Loves: DAPHNE 1

  • “Laurel"

  • Apollo offended Eros

  • Eros sent a dull, leaden arrow that repels love at Daphne, and a bright short arrow at Apollo.


Apollo and daphne 2
Apollo and Daphne 2

  • Daphne vowed to remain a virgin devoted to Artemis, and fled Apollo

  • When she reached the waters of the Peneus (her father) she was transformed into a laurel tree


Apollo s loves hyacinthus
Apollo’s Loves: HYACINTHUS

  • Hyacinthus was wounded and killed while competing at throwing discus with Apollo.

  • Apollo caused a new flower, the hyacinth, to arise from his blood.



Apollo s loves coronis
Apollo’s Loves: CORONIS

  • CORONIS was pregnant with Apollo’s child when the raven saw her in the arms of another lover

  • The god shot her with one of his arrows, but saved the baby ASCLEPIUS who became the god of medicine


Apollo s musical contests marsyas
Apollo’s Musical contests: MARSYAS

  • The satyr Marsyas picked up the flute invented by Athena.

  • He challenged Apollo to a contest

  • Apollo won and he decided to flay Marsyas alive


Apollo s musical contests pan
Apollo’s Musical Contests: PAN

  • Pan dared to engage in a contest with Apollo.

  • TMOLUS the god of the mountain was the judge.

  • He declared Apollo the victor, but MIDAS, the king of Phrygia declared the verdict unjust.

  • Apollo changed Midas’ ears into the ears of an ass.



The nature of apollo
THE NATURE OF APOLLO

  • God of shepherds, associated with music

  • God of medicine

  • God of the sun PHOEBUS Apollo "bright."    

  • Symbol of classical restraint, of "Know thyself" and "Nothing too much."

  • Can bring enlightenment, atonement, truth, and a new civic order of justice and is often contrasted with Dionysus




Demeter and the eleusinian mysteries

Demeter and the Eleusinian Mysteries

The Homeric Hymn to Demeter


Demeter and the abduction of persephone by hades
Demeter and the abduction of Persephone by Hades

Persephone: daughter of

Demeter and Zeus was

kidnapped by Hades


Demeter s grief
Demeter’s Grief

  • Hecate heard Persephone’s screams

  • The sun-god Helius saw Hades

  • Demeter suspects Zeus


Demeter in eleusis
Demeter in Eleusis

  • Daughters of KELEUS, and METANEIRA invite her

  • She refuses to taste food or drink until IAMBE, with jests and jokes caused her to smile and laugh.

  • She then accepted a drink called KYKEON.



Demeter the nurse of demophoon
Demeter the nurse of Demophoon

  • Attempts to make him immortal through fire.

  • When Metaneira interrupts her Demeter reveals her divinity.

  • She then disappears but promises to teach her rites to the inhabitants of Eleusis.


Demeter s anger
Demeter’s Anger

  • Demeter causes a year with no harvest.

  • Zeus orders Hades to release Persephone.

  • Before leaving Persephone eats a pomegranate seed.


Final compromise
Final Compromise

  • 1/3 third part of the year below

  • 2/3 with her mother

  • Demeter restores fertility

  • establishes her Eleusinian Mysteries


The final message of the hymn
The Final Message of the Hymn

Happy is the one of

mortals on earth who has

seen these things. But

those who are uninitiated

into the holy rites …

never are destined to a

similar joy when they are

dead in the gloomy realm

below.”



The greater mysteries
The Greater Mysteries

  • September and October

  • Splendid procession between Athens and Eleusis with "holy objects" carried by priests and priestesses

  • Sacrifices, prayers, and cleansing in the sea


The eleusinian procession
The Eleusinian Procession

  • Ritual cleansing

  • Torches

  • Fasting and vigil

  • Hymns and obscene jests


The sacred rites
The Sacred Rites

  • KYKEON the sacred drink

  • Dramatic performance

    ? vision of Afterlife

    ? religious purification

  • The revelation of the hiera, "sacred objects"


Hades
HADES

  • Roman names: DIS, PLUTO (both names mean wealth)

  • ORCUS by the Romans

  • God of death and agricultural plenty


Tartarus
TARTARUS

• Place of punishment

  • Name for Hades’ realm as a whole

  • Erebus

  • The darkness of Tartarus

  • Tartarus itself


Elysian fields
Elysian Fields

  • Elysium, the Elysian Fields. Paradise in the Underworld.


Three judges
Three Judges

  • MINOS RHADAMANTHUS,

  • and AEACUS

  • Pass sentence on the just and unjust souls


Charon
Charon

  • The Ferryman

  • Transports souls across the river Styx, or Acheron.

  • He demands as fare the coin that is buried in the mouth of a corpse


Hermes psychopompus
Hermes Psychopompus

  • Hermes Psychopompus

    Hermes as "leader of the soul" takes our souls, after death, to Charon.


Cerberus
Cerberus

  • The Hound of Hades

  • Guards the realm

  • Ferocious, with (at least) three snarling heads


The furies
The Furies

  • ERINYES

  • Born from Uranus’ blood

  • Pitiless and just avengers of crime, especially murder and blood-guilt within the family


Dionysus bacchus

Dionysus (Bacchus)

God of Ecstasy



The birth of dionysus
THE BIRTH of Dionysus

  • Zeus loved SEMELE, daughter of CADMUS

  • Hera convinced Semele to trick Zeus into revealing himself

  • Semele was burned, but their unborn child was saved by Zeus

  • Dionysus was born from Zeus’ thigh and brought up by nymphs and Semele's sister Ino on a mountain named Nysa


The bacchae of euripides 1
THE BACCHAE OF EURIPIDES 1

  • Dionysus comes to Thebes where his religion is repudiated

  • The women of Thebes become possessed by frenzy (animal skins, tambourines, with the thyrsus) on Mt. Cithaerion


The bacchae of euripides 2
THE BACCHAE OF EURIPIDES 2

  • Cadmus’ grandson Pentheus is vehemently opposed to the new religion

  • Deceived by Dionysus, he participates in his rites disguised as a woman

  • He is discovered and torn to pieces by the Bacchae led by his mother AGAVE



The nature of dionysus
THE NATURE OF DIONYSUS

  • God of vegetation

  • God of wine

  • Represents the irrational in human beings

  • Dionysiac ecstasy, MANIA, combines the bestial and the sublime


The religion of dionysus
THE RELIGION OF DIONYSUS

  • Dionysus took possession of his worshipers

  • In a ceremony called OMOPHAGY they ate raw flesh of the sacrificial animal

  • The congregation that engaged in this ritual communion was called THIASUS



Dionysus followers
DIONYSUS’ FOLLOWERS

  • Female followers of D. called MAENADS or BACCHAE are women possessed by the god

  • These names are also given to the mythological nymphs, spirits of nature, in Dionysus' retinue


Dionysus followers1
DIONYSUS’ FOLLOWERS

  • SATYRS male counterparts of the Maenads, part man and part animal, with a horse's tail and ears and a goat's beard and horns    

  • SILENI are older satyrs, some of whom are wise


Dionysiac props
DIONYSIAC PROPS

  • Animal skins and garlands

  • THYRSUS = a pole wreathed with ivy or vine leaves, pointed at the top to receive a pinecone


Dionysus and apollo
DIONYSUS AND APOLLO

  • Dionysus = unrestrained freedom and passion

  • Apollo = the lyre's disciplined melody, reason, and self-control.

  • Friedrich Nietzche's study of drama entitled The Birth of Tragedy emphasizes this contrast as an essential feature of Greek drama.


Dionysus zagreus
DIONYSUS-ZAGREUS

  • Zeus mated with his daughter Persephone, and she bore a son ZAGREUS

  • Hera incited the Titans to dismember the child and devour the pieces

  • The heart of the child was saved; and Dionysus was born again, through Semele and Zeus, as recounted above.


Dionysus
Dionysus

  • Zeus in anger destroyed the Titans

  • From their ashes mortals were born

  • We inherit our bodies from the Titans and our souls from the god they had devoured


Dionysus and ariadn e
DIONYSUS AND ARIADNE

  • ARIADNE gave the hero Theseus a thread by which he could find his way out of the labyrinth after killing the Minotaur.

  • He abandoned her on the island of Naxos

  • She was rescued by Bacchus, who fell in love with her


Icarius
ICARIUS

  • Dionysus rewarded the hospitality of ICARIUS by giving him the gift of wine

  • The people who first felt its effects thought that they had been poisoned and killed Icarius


King midas of phrygia
KING MIDAS OF PHRYGIA

  • Silenus was captured and brought before King Midas who recognized him and returned him to the god.

  • Dionysus promised to give the king any gift that he wished

  • Midas asked for “golden touch”



The homeric hymn to dionysus
The Homeric Hymn to Dionysus

  • Pirates carried D. off on their ship.

  • The bonds miraculously would not hold

  • A vine entwined about the mast and grew up to the very top of the sail

  • The god became a terrifying lion

  • The sailors leaped into the sea and became dolphins


PAN

  • God of shepherds and of music

  • Part man, with the horns, ears, and legs of a goat

  • His father often identified as Hermes


Syrinx
SYRINX

  • Fled the advances of Pan

  • Was transformed into a bed of marsh reeds

  • Pan cut two of them, fastened with wax, and fashioned his own musical instrument, the pan-pipe


Echo 1
ECHO 1

  • Ran away from Pan

  • Spread such "panic" among a group of shepherds that they tore her to pieces

  • Only her voice remained


Echo 2
ECHO 2

  • Conspired with Zeus to divert Hera’s attention

  • Was deprived of speech

  • Fell in love with Narcissus

  • Withered away


Hermes

Hermes

God of Boundaries



The homeric hymn to hermes
THE HOMERIC HYMN TO HERMES

  • Zeus loved MAIA luxurious cave, and

  • She bore HERMES (MERCURY).

  • This precocious baby was born at dawn, by midday he was playing the lyre, and in the evening he stole the cattle of Apollo.


Hermes invents the seven stringed lyre
Hermes Invents the Seven-stringedLyre

  • He used:

  • a hollowed tortoise shell

  • reeds

  • an ox's hide

  • strings of sheep gut


Hermes steals apollo s cattle
Hermes Steals Apollo's Cattle

  • At night, he cut off 50 cows from the herd

  • He made them walk backwards, their heads facing him

  • He walked straight ahead, wearing sandals of wicker that he had woven to disguise his tracks


Apollo tracks down hermes
Apollo Tracks Down Hermes

  • Apollo heard of a child driving a herd backwards

  • The guessed the thief’s identity and found Hermes in his cradle

  • He took the baby to the Mt. Olympus, where he sought justice from Zeus


The reconciliation of hermes and apollo
The Reconciliation of Hermes and Apollo

  • Zeus laughed and ordered Hermes to lead Apollo to the cattle

  • Hermes returns the cattle

  • He shows the lyre to Apollo and offers it to him

  • Apollo gives Hermes a golden staff and directs him to three goddesses who will teach him the art of prophecy


Hermaphroditus
Hermaphroditus

  • Son of Hermes and Aphrodite

  • The nymph of a spring Salmacis fell in love with young H.

  • H. rejected her

  • S. clung to H. when he was swimming in the spring

  • Their two bodies were joined together


The nature of hermes
THE NATURE OF HERMES

  • God of shepherds

  • Patron of thieves and business people

  • Master of persuasion

  • Psychopompus

  • Messenger of the gods

  • Archetypal trickster


Attributes of hermes
ATTRIBUTES OF HERMES

  • PETASUS a broad-brimmed hat, sometimes winged

  • Sandals often winged.

  • CADUCEUS a herald's staff, sometimes entwined with two snakes


Herms
Herms

  • Rectangular or square pillars equipped with male genitals and with the head or bust of Hermes on top.

  • Brought fertility and good luck


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