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United States Lighthouse Service. US Lighthouse Service. Administrative History Lighthouse Technology Types of Lighthouses Distinct Lighthouses People of the USLHS Lightships and Tenders Legacy of the USLHS Lighthouses in the USCG after 1939. Administrative History.

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US Lighthouse Service

  • Administrative History

  • Lighthouse Technology

  • Types of Lighthouses

  • Distinct Lighthouses

  • People of the USLHS

  • Lightships and Tenders

  • Legacy of the USLHS

    • Lighthouses in the USCG after 1939



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Earliest Aids to Navigation

  • Early Navigation

  • Daymarks

  • Fires ashore

  • Emergence of maritime commerce

  • Pharos of Alexandria

  • Pharologists

Artist’s depiction of Pharos of Alexandria


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Early Lights in America

  • Havana, Cuba

  • 1716-Little Brewster Island

  • Prior to 1775

  • Sandy Hook

British ship passes the light on Little Brewster Island

Light at Sandy Hook, NJ


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New Nation

  • 1783

  • Articles of Confederation

  • Constitutional Convention

  • Constitution

  • First Congress

  • Secretary of the Treasury


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Early Administration

  • Albert Gallatin

  • 1820

  • Construction to 1820

Albert Gallatin


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Stephen Pleasanton1820-1852

  • Fifth Auditor (1820-1852)

  • “Lowest Bidder”

  • Predecessors

  • Expanding US

Stephen Pleasanton


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THE LIGHTHOUSE BOARD(1852-1910)

  • 1851

  • 1852

  • Lighthouse Districts

  • Inspectors

  • Instructions

  • Light Lists

1880 Regulations

1893 Light List

Map of 5th Lighthouse District in 1883


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Bureau of Lighthouses

  • 1903

  • 1910

  • Organization

  • George R. Putnam

George Putnam

President Theodore Roosevelt


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USLHS Joins the USCG

  • Reorganization Plan No. 11

  • Efficiency & Economy

  • Integration of 5,200 personnel and other assets

  • 7 July 1939


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LighthouseTechnology


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Lenses to the 1800s

  • Plano-Convex Lens

  • Buffon Lens


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Early Lamps

Kettle Lamp

Pan Lamp

Spider Lamp

Argand Lamp and Reflector


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Illuminants

  • Wood & Coal

  • Candles

  • Oils

    • Sperm Oil

    • Colza Oil

    • Lard Oil

    • Kerosene

  • Electricity

The Unveiling of the Statue of Liberty in 1886


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Augustin-Jean Fresnel

  • 1788

  • Wave Optics

  • Fresnel Lens

  • Intensification of light

  • 1827

Augustin-Jean Fresnel


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Orders of Fresnel Lenses

  • First through Sixth Orders

  • Original classifications




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Fixed & Revolving Lenses

Fixed Lens

Revolving Lens


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Types ofLighthouses


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PRE-FEDERAL ERA LIGHTHOUSES(1716-1789)

  • 12 Lighthouses

  • Wood or Stone

  • 90 feet

  • Questions

Sandy Hook, NJ


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EARLY FEDERAL ERA LIGHTHOUSES(1789-1820)

  • 1789

  • George Washington

  • Albert Gallatin

  • Cut Stones & Brick

  • 11 Survive

Portland Head, ME

Old Tower at Cape Henry, VA

Georgetown Harbor, SC


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THE FIFTH AUDITOR OF THETRESURY'S LIGHTHOUSES(1820-1852)

  • “Lowest Bidder”

  • Matinicus Rock

  • Problems

Matinicus Rock, ME


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PILE FOUNDATION

  • John Phillips

  • Henry Whiteside

  • Brandywine Shoals

  • Desdemona Sands

Old Brandywine Shoal, NJ

Cover to Desdemona Sand Specifications


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PROTECTED SCREW PILE LIGHTHOUSES(1850- ?)

  • 1850

  • Alexander Mitchell

  • Iron Stilts

  • Technology

Drum Point, MD


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EXPOSED, SCREW-PILE LIGHTHOUSES(1852-1880)

  • 1852

  • Florida reefs

  • Carysfort Reef

  • Civil War

Fowey Rocks, FL

Sombrero Key, FL

Carysfort Reef, FL


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Straight-Pile Tubular Skeletal Towers

  • Cast & Wrought Iron Piles

Southwest Reef, LA


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WAVE-SWEPT LIGHTHOUSES(1850-1906)

  • John Smeaton

  • Minots Ledge

  • “I Love You” Light

  • St. Georges Reef & Mile Rock

St. Georges Reef, CA

Plan of Minots Ledge, MA

Mile Rock, CA


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TALL BRICK TOWERS(1857-1876)

  • Cape Hatteras

  • 1859

  • Conical

  • Construction techniques

  • Suggestions

  • 14 of 15

Pensacola, FL

Cape Hatteras, NC

Fire Island, NY


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CAST IRON LIGHTHOUSES

  • Late 1830s

  • Light & inexpensive construction

  • Destruction Island

Destruction Island, WA


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CRIB LIGHTHOUSES

  • 1870s

  • Great Lakes

  • White Shoal

Spectacle Reef, MI

White Shoal, MI

Poe Reef, MI


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COFFERDAM LIGHTHOUSES

  • Dry site

  • Shallow water

  • Wooden walls

Craighill Channel Upper Front Range, MD

Robbins Reef, NY


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UNDER-WATER FOUNDATION LIGHTHOUSES

  • Man-made foundations/Underwater ledges

    • Race Rock

    • Stratford Shoal

    • New London Ledge

Stratford Shoal, CT

New London Ledge, CT

Race Rock, NY


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CAISSON LIGHTHOUSES

  • Iron technology

  • Lawrence Potts

  • Expense

  • Duxbury

Bloody Point, MD

Duxbury, MA


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SUBMARINE SITE (PNEUMATIC CAISSONS) LIGHTHOUSES

  • Special Preparation

  • Double bottom

  • Cellar

  • Caissons vs. Screw-Piles

Wolf Trap, VA


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BREAKWATER LIGHTHOUSES

  • Unique challenges

  • Light, but sturdy

  • Keeper’s Quarters

  • Great Lakes

Cleveland Harbor East Pierhead , OH

Grand Haven South Pierhead Rear Range, MI


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SKELETON TOWER LIGHTHOUSES

  • Pre-fabricated

  • Low wind resistance

  • Coney Island

Hog Island, VA

Coney Island, NY


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REINFORCED CONCRETE LIGHTHOUSES(1908-1948)

  • Superior to metals

  • Replace brick

  • Point Arena

  • Oak Island

Point Arena, CA

Oak Island, NC







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Point Fermin & Hereford Inlet

Point Fermin

Hereford Inlet















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Duties of a Lighthouse Keeper

  • Light & Extinguish

  • “Wickie”

  • Shine and Polish

  • Maintain the log

  • Fog Signal

Keeper inspects the lens


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Ida Lewis

  • Lime Rock Lighthouse

  • 24 Rescues

  • Presidential visit

  • Ida Lewis Rock

Ida Lewis

Ida Lewis rescues two soldiers on 29 March 1869


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Marcus Hanna

  • Medal of Honor & Gold LSM

  • 4 July 1863

  • 28 January 1885


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Frederick T. Hatch

  • Twice Awarded the Gold Lifesaving Medal

  • 1884--USLSS

  • 1890--USLHS

Frederick T. Hatch


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Samuel Amalu

  • Dean’s of Hawaii’s Keepers

  • Joined LHS in 1906

Samuel Amalu


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Others Who Served

Keepers

Crew of a lighthouse tender

Keeper and his Light


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Lighthouse Families

Keepers and their families


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Lightships &Tenders


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Evolution of Lightships

  • Ancient Rome

  • Great Britain

Map of Italy during the Roman Empire

King George II


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First US Lightships

  • Willoughby Spit

  • Sandy Hook


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Development of Lightships

  • 116 Stations

  • 1909

  • 1927

Plan ofLV-1


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Satisfying Multiple ATON Requirements

  • Shallow Water

  • Deep Water

  • Multiple roles

  • Highly efficient ATON

Merrill's Shell Bank Lightship, 1847


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Life on a Lightship

  • Inadequate

  • Poor light platforms

  • “Similar to a barrel”

  • Accommodations

Maintaining the Lights

LV 1

Relaxing in the Wardroom


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Lightship Losses

  • Cross Rip

  • Diamond Shoals

  • Nantucket


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Lighthouse Tenders

  • Commissioned vessels

  • Logistical support

Tenders performing logistical support for the lighthouses


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Lighthouse Tenders

USHLT Columbine

USHLT Goldenrod


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USHLT Shubrick



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LORAN

  • Long Range Navigation= LORAN

  • Pulse transmission

  • Range

  • March 1942

  • Lawrence Harding

  • Practical system

  • Stations built throughout the world

  • Civilian applications

LORAN Station


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Scotch Cap

  • 1903

  • 1940

  • Tsunami

  • 1950

  • 1971

1903 Tower

Current Light

1940 Lighthouse Before and After the 1946 Tsunami


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OFF-SHORE "TEXAS TOWER" STRUCTURES

  • Post-World War II

  • Oil Industry

Ambrose Lightship passes by the Ambrose Offshore Light Tower


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THE ALUMINUM LIGHTHOUSE(1960-??)

  • Lantern Room

  • Charleston Light

  • Elevator

Charleston Light, SC


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FIBERGLASS TOWERS

  • British Innovation

  • Little metal

  • 1960s & 1980s

  • Plastic Lighthouse

Deer Island, MA


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End of the Lightships

  • LNB

  • 29 March 1985

  • Nantucket 1

ADM James Gracey

LNB on Station with 44-ft. patrol boat (foreground)


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New Technologies & Lighthouses

  • GPS

  • Boston Light

Satellites are vital to the Operation of GPS


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