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Today. Australia & New Zealand Physical Geography Population and density issues Historical, economic, and cultural Immigration and Maori & Aboriginal rights. Last Time SE Asia-questions?. European colonization Contemporary population issues in SE Asia Country details in SE Asia.

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Presentation Transcript
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Today

  • Australia & New Zealand

    • Physical Geography

    • Population and density issues

    • Historical, economic, and cultural

    • Immigration and Maori & Aboriginal rights


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Last Time SE Asia-questions?

  • European colonization

  • Contemporary population issues in SE Asia

  • Country details in SE Asia


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Australia & New Zealand

  • Size and location

  • Physical Geography

    • Australia

      • Landforms

      • Climate

      • Vegetation and physical features

    • New Zealand


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Population in Australia & New Zealand

  • Australia

    • Low population

    • Large area => low density

  • New Zealand

    • Small pop but small area


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History & Settlement of Australia

  • Aboriginal inhabitants

  • European entry & impact

  • Core area of settlement

    • Either side of Great Dividing Range

    • Major cities: Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide

    • Vast majority of pop is urban ~ 85%


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Australia: Export-based primary sector economy mostly

  • Minerals and ores — iron, copper, coal, nickel, etc a major supplier

  • Agricultural animals beef, lambs, sheep, wool (20-30% or total for world)

  • Wheat: 4th largest producer

  • “Import substitution” local economy

  • Spatially economy is like a donut

  • Problem: to keep up with high growth mostly industrial economies in Far East

    • Less trade to colonizer - UK


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New Zealand

  • Native settlement

    • People of Polynesian origins called Maori settled in ~ 1000 AD

    • Bulk of Maori settlement on N island

  • European exploration and settlement

    • Tasman in late 1600s

    • British influence dates from Cook in 1769/70

  • European and Maori encounters

    • Initial impact was a prolonged and bloody war

    • A second impact was the effect of disease


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New Zealand II

  • Transformations by European settlers

    • Extinctions: e.g., moas

    • Introduction of cattle, pigs, and sheep

    • Huge deforestation

  • Population and settlement

    • Most settlement is on N island

    • ~ 4m pop (sheep ~ 25m and cattle ~ 8m

    • ~ 85% urban

    • Peripheral settlement pattern like Australia


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New Zealand

  • Economy

    • Traditional ties to Great Britain

    • As the UK joined the EC and preferential trade was stopped

    • Does not have a rich mineral resource base – animal agriculture base

    • Modern economic ties are to various Pacific rim countries


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Immigration, Maori, & Aboriginal rights

  • Australian aboriginal rights

    • Court cases have given economic rights

    • Backlash by right wing political parties

    • Aborigines are by far the worst off of groups

  • Maori (New Zealand) issues

    • Increasingly demanding traditional rights to fishing etc.

    • ~ 10% of pop is Maori

    • By 2010 they may be 25% of pop


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N. Territory

Aboriginal lands

Aboriginal

Land claims


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Immigration, Maori, & Aboriginal rights II

  • Asian immigration in Australia

    • Until 1970s Australia maintained a “Whites only” immigration policy

    • Changed in the 1970s and a large number of Asians have immigrated to Australia

    • Now only ~ 1/3 of Australians are of UK background


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