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The Republic of China (Taiwan). Republic of China 1912. First republic in Asia First president: Sun Yat-sen (1866 - 1925). ROC Constitution (1946). First constitutional president (1948 - 1975): Chiang Kai-shek (1887 - 1975) Defeated by CCP in 1949 Retreated to Taiwan

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The Republic of China (Taiwan)

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The republic of china taiwan l.jpg

The Republic of China (Taiwan)


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Republic of China 1912

  • First republic in Asia

  • First president: Sun Yat-sen (1866 - 1925)


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ROC Constitution (1946)

  • First constitutional president (1948 - 1975): Chiang Kai-shek (1887 - 1975)

  • Defeated by CCP in 1949

  • Retreated to Taiwan

  • Authoritarian rule for a quarter century


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ROC Government

  • President (4-year term after 1996)

  • The Five ``Yuan”:

    • Executive Yuan

    • Legislative Yuan

    • Judicial Yuan

    • Examination Yuan

    • Control Yuan

  • 2 Provinces and 18 counties


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Taiwan before 1949

  • Immigration from mainland China for centuries (Fujian and Hakka)

  • 1885, Qing government promoted Taiwan from prefecture to province

  • 1895, ceded to Japan

  • 1945, returned to Republic of China

  • ``Taiwanese” versus ``mainlanders”

    • Fujian 70%, Hakka 15%, ``mainlanders” 13%


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Taiwan & Islands

  • Area: 13,900 square miles

  • Population: 23 million


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Chiang Kai-shek’s Rule

  • Popular elections at the basic level

  • Land reform

  • 9-year compulsory education

  • Economic take-off from 1960s

    • Export processing zones attract foreign direct investment

    • Industrialization strengthens manufacturing sector


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Chiang’s One-China Policy

  • ``Mainland was temporarily usurped by communist bandits”

  • ``Gloriously retake the mainland”

  • Refused diplomatic relations with any country that recognized PRC

  • ROC was a permanent member of UN Security Council until 1971


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Lee Teng-hui (1923 - )

  • Succeeded Chiang Kai-shek’s son as president of ROC and chairman of GMD in 1988

  • Became the first popularly elected president of ROC in 1996

  • Helped Democratic Progressive Party gain power in 2000


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Chen Shui-bian (1950 - )

  • Leader of the pro-independent Democratic Progressive Party

  • President of ROC 2000-2008

  • Prisoner #2630 since 2008-11-12


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Diplomatic Tug of War

  • 162 countries recognize PRC as the legitimate government of China

  • 27 countries recognize ROC as the legitimate government of China


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Diplomatic Tug of War

  • 162 countries recognize PRC (Beijing) as the legitimate government of China

    • 8 (’49) 32 (’59) 49 (’69) 113 (’79) 129 (’89)

  • 29 countries recognize ROC (Taipei) as the legitimate government of China


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US Official Policy

  • US government shifted diplomatic recognition from ROC to PRC in 1979

  • US congress passed Taiwan Relations Act in 1979

  • American Institute in Taiwan

  • Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Offices in US


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Economic Ties

  • Trade and investment expanded rapidly despite restrictions by ROC government

  • Workaround: Hong Kong & Macau

  • ``Three links”:

    • mail

    • transportation

    • trade


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Hong Kong

Hong Kong SAR


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Land & People

  • 422 square miles

    • Hong Kong Island

    • Kowloon Peninsular

    • New Territories

    • Outlying islands

  • 7 million residents

    • 95% Chinese


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Brief History

  • HK Island was occupied by UK in 1841

  • New Territories on 99-year lease in 1898

  • Occupied by Japan during World War II

  • Shanghai enterprises fled CCP forces in late 1940s

    • industrialization of Hong Kong

  • One of the four ``Asian Tigers”


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Negotiations with UK

  • Deng Xiaoping: “1 country, 2 systems”

  • PRC Constitution of 1982: S.A.R.

  • PRC & UK Joint Declaration in 1984


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Handover to PRC

  • 7th National People’s Congress adopted Basic Law of HKSAR in Beijing in 1990

  • Became Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of PRC in July 1, 1997


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Basic Law of Hong Kong SAR

  • Stipulated in PRC-UK Joint Declaration in 1984

  • Drafted by a committee with members from both Hong Kong and mainland

  • Adopted by 7th NPC in Beijing in 1990

  • Came into effect on July 1, 1997

  • Constitutional document for HKSAR


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3 Principles in the Basic Law

  • ``One Country, Two Systems”

    • Capitalist system and way of life shall remain unchanged for 50 years (B.L. A5)

  • ``High Degree of Autonomy”

  • ``Hong Kong People Running Hong Kong”


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``One Country, Two Systems”

  • Legal system (British common law) shall be maintained, except for any law that contravene the Basic Law and subject to amendment by the legislature (B.L. A8)


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`` High Degree of Autonomy”

  • HKSAR enjoys executive, legislative, and independent judicial power, including that of final adjudication (B.L. A2)


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``HK People Running HK”

  • executive authorities and legislature shall be composed of permanent residents of Hong Kong (B.L. A3)

  • public servants must be permanent residents of Hong Kong, with some exceptions


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Central People’s Government

  • responsible for defense and foreign affairs relating to HKSAR (B.L. A13-14)

  • authorizes HKSAR to conduct relevant external affairs on its own (B.L. A13)

  • HKSAR shall be responsible for the maintenance of public order

  • 11 PRC laws apply to HK (B.L. A18)


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Rights and Freedoms

  • freedom of speech, of the press, of publication, of association, of assembly, of procession, of demonstration, of communication, of movement, of conscience, of religious belief, of marriage..

  • the right and freedom to form and join trade unions, and to strike


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3 Branches of Political Structure

  • Chief Executive

    • Donald Tsang

  • Legislative Council

  • Court of Final Appeal


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S/election of CE & Legco

  • Shall be specified in the light of the actual situation in the HKSAR and in accordance with the principle of gradual and orderly progress (B.L. A45 & A68)

  • The ultimate aim is the election of the Chief Executive and all the members of the Legislative Council by universal suffrage (B.L. A45 & A68)


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S/election of Chief Executive

  • 800-member Election Committee

    • industrial, commercial, and financial sectors 1/4

    • the professions 1/4

    • labor, social services, religious, & other 1/4

    • Legco, HK deputies to NPC, etc. 1/4

  • Donald Tsang (2005 - 2012)

    • no more than two consecutive terms


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S/election of 60-member Legco


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Since 1997

  • Freedoms and rights substantially intact

    • dissident groups

    • Falun Gong

  • Judicial system remains the same

  • Weak executive and strong civil service

  • Lack of political skills

  • Multiple political parties


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Hong Kong’s Competitiveness

  • Geographic location

    • one of the best deep-water ports in the world

  • hardworking well-educated workforce

    • literacy rate 94%


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``World’s Freest Economy”

  • exports & imports each (>US$300b) > GDP

  • GDP per capita: US$43,700 (PPP)

  • no VAT, sales tax, or capital gains tax

  • only 3 types of income are taxed:

    • profits, salaries, and property

  • but

    • 31% live in public housing


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Influence on Mainland China

  • US$220 billion direct investment each way

  • Hong Kong bodies of law and expertise

  • Hong Kong attracts talents from mainland

  • Hong Kong radios, TV, newspapers, magazines, and Internet on mainland


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