Version Okt. 2007. Speech Science. W. Barry I nstitut für P honetik, U niversität des S aarlandes IPUS. Term Programme 1. Wk 1 : • What is Speech Science - scientific goals? Übung 1 Wk 2 : • Capturing and representing Speech Übung 2
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Institut für Phonetik, Universität des Saarlandes
Wk 1 : • What is Speech Science - scientific goals?Übung 1
Wk 2 : • Capturing and representing Speech Übung 2
Wk 3 : • Speech production I – Breathing Übung 3
Wk 4 : • Speech production II – Speech organs and articulation; Übung 4
Wk 5 : • Speech production III – Speech motor control 1;Übung 5
Wk 6 : • Speech production IV – Speech motor control 2; Übung 6
Wk 7 : • Acoustic structure of speech I – Source-Filter
Wk 8 : • Acoustic structure of speech II – Vowels
Wk 9 : • Acoustic structure of speech III – Consonants
Wk 10: • Variable acoustics – constant perception
Wk 11: • What do we perceive? Sounds/syllables/words?
Wk 12: • What happens in fluent speech? – Articulation and acoustics; Übung12
Wk 13: • What do we produce when we speak? Sounds/syllables/words?; (distribute trial exam)Übung 13: Discussion of trial exam
Wk 14: • Discussion of practice exam
Wk 15: • Final exam
R. D. Kent (1997). The Speech Sciences. San Diego/London: Singular Publishing Group, Inc.
G.J. Borden, K.S. Harris & L.J. Raphael (1994). Speech Science Primer.Physiology, Acoustics and Perception of Speech. (3rd edition). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.
B. Pompino-Marschall (2003). Einführung in die Phonetik. (2nd edition) Berlin/New York: Walter de Gruyter
H. Reetz (1999). Artikulatorische und akustische Phonetik. Wissen-schaftlicher Verlag Trier (WVT).
• Scientific goals
• Areas of Speech Science
• "Homework": a) Kent, Chap. 1, pp. 1-20 (K) b) Borden, Harris & Raphael, Chap. 2, pp.14-23 (BHR)
Deutsch: c) Pompino-Marschall, Teil I, S. 1-10; Teil II, S. 13-16 (P-M)
• Science: Seeks to explain the “Hows?” of the world
• What are the “Hows?” of speech?
• For any question “How?” there has to be a “What?”
• So … what is speech?
The systematic movement of our articulators?
The sound patterns we perceive?
The sound waves that travel from speaker to hearer?
• All of the things mentioned ……. but more!
• We really need a “communication framework” for speech to actually take place
• The articulatory movements The acoustic pressure patterns The sound patterns that we perceive HAVE TO BE RELATED TO A MESSAGE
• ……… so what do we mean by “message”?
• ….. is the information the speaker conveys to the listener
• Mostly, the semantic content of the utterance (though this can be metaphoric or otherwise indirect)
• Also, the speaker’s attitude to the content
….. and to the person(s) being talked to
• But speech also reflects things about the speaker (indexical information: sex, age, health, mood ……)
• So the relationship between message and sound patterns is much more than how /i a u/ and /p t k/ are produced.
• Our definition of “message” can be problematical for speech research:
•Speech research is often associated with unnatural utterances …(something our definition rejects as “genuine speech”?)
Words set in carrier sentences
Word lists containing target sounds
Repeated phrases……. etc.
• Within the framework of the research question they DO conveyinformation to the listener (= to the investigator)
…. As a meta-message = a message about the linguistic form
So, within a particular theoretical question it can be valid material.
• But such speech can never be considered “natural speech”
• A message encoded in language and expressed phonetically (i.e. through the medium of sound) …..
• ….. which means that a speaker is active, an acoustic signal is produced…..
• ….. and it is assumed that the speaker is talking to someone. I.e., a hearer receives and processes the signal (decodes the message)
This “speech chain” defines the broad area within which Speech Science asks its questions.
timeas a function of
Observation domains within the speech chain (adapted from P-M. p.14)Speech Chain
From Denes & Pinson, 1993, p. 5
increasingly of interest (psychology & medicine)
EEG (Electroencephalography) and
MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
• Global information about neural activity:
EEG and MEG provide high temporal resolution of activity in small areas of the brain.
MRI shows activity in all areas of the brain but with low temporal resolution.
• Nothing is clear from one observation (noisy signals). Patterns emerge from the average of many repetitions.
• Neuro-muscular processes (production) EMG (Electromyography)
TracheaObservation domains III
• Articulation (Production) – Traditional observation domain in Phonetics.
• Acoustic Signal – Increasingly central to speech research from 1945 onwards.
• It has a central positionbetween speaker and hearer; it is the productof articulation and the input to the perception process.
• Different representationsgive us information about the distribution ofacoustic energy in timeor in frequency.
• Auditory system (the physiological and neurological foundation of perception)
Semi-circular canals balance nerve auditory nerve
The peripheral auditory system (ear)
• Stimulus transformation (psycho-acoustics, psycho-phonetics, speech perception)
• What are the acoustic properties that keep vowels and consonants, monophthongs and diphthongs, stops and fricatives, voiced and voiceless consonants apart?
• The “same sound” is acoustically different when it is produced by different speakers – very different if the speakers are men vs. women vs. children. Why do they sound the same?
• The “same sound” is acoustically different when it is produced in different contexts.
• Different observation domains give us different perspectives on what people do to communicate.
• Examining the phonetic events in relation to the message gives us:
a) a lot of knowledge about the structure of speech
b) insight into how the properties of speech affect the message
• This serves many purpose:
-The formulation of theories of speech (production and perception)
-The development of pronunciation-teaching methods and therapies for the speech impaired
-Applications in speech and language technology