South Carolina in the Early 1700s
1729 King George I accepted the request to make SC a royal colony
Slide 2 Slide 3
Changes in the Colony
- SC would change in several ways after becoming a royal colony.
- The economy would be benefited when the _____ of _____ increased subsides, which allowed higher profits, for naval stores
- Also, the Board allowed the colony to trade directly with foreign markets.
- This also increased rice profits
Creation of a new colony out of the southern portion of SC.
Created for two reasons
As a ____ _____for protection from Spanish Florida.
As a prison colony for debtors.
Problems with the new colony
While it did create a sense of security for SC’s inhabitants, it also resulted in less land being available to South Carolinians.
Became a safe haven for runaway ______.
Created competition in ____ production.
Two Different South Carolinas
- All early settlements in SC were built along the coast, so all the high quality infrastructure was located in the tidewater region of the ____ _______.
- Many of the most important colonists or “Downers” lived there, and it would be the most important region for many years.
- Home for most of wealthy plantation owners and exporters.
- Most of the representatives of the Assembly came from this region.
- Most of the slaves were located there.
- Where most of the wealth was located.
- Most of the law and _______ were located in the Low Country.
That Other SC
- Largest part of the colony.
- By the mid 1700s the majority of the white population was located here.
- Not well or fairly represented in the _________ until 1860.
- The majority of the population were poorer subsistence farmers.
- Would benefit when the Board of Trade created eleven townships to encourage settlements.
- The more settlers in the Up Country meant more protection from Indians.
- Not an easy place to live.
- ________ attacks were more frequent.
- To get anywhere they had to walk long distances on poor ______.
Two Distinct Regions
- So different but one colony.
- The settlers had different cultural backgrounds.
- Farms were different in size.
- Level of Education was better in the Low Country.
- Courts and Law more abundant in the tidewater.
The Regulator Movement
- Law and Order
- When there were few settlers there was little need for _______ and ______ in the Up Country.
- But with the creation of the _________ a population boom occurred.
- Drifters, outlaws, and horse thieves also boomed.
- ________ began to attack honest people and could not be brought to justice.
- Because most of the Assembly was from the ____________, the request for courts and sheriffs went unanswered.
- This is one of the biggest and earliest conflicts between the Up and the Low.
The Up Country Strikes Back
- 1767 the Uppers had enough.
- Vigilantes began to provide justice as they saw fit.
- They were called ______________.
- Often abused justice and the rights of the accused.
- Some were wolves in sheep’s clothing.
- The Governor Montague tried to stop the Regulators
- First he condemned them, then asked for more ______ but nothing stopped them.
- Finally, the Assembly passed the _____________________.
- Established seven courthouses and sheriffs.
- Helped provide justice
- But, and this is a BIG BUT, Do you like BIG BUTS?
- It improved the moral of the Up Country
It’s Your Turn
- You are a European settler arriving in SC in the 1700s.
- Where would you settle?
- What are the disadvantages?
- You are an Upper. You are upset that your pleas for justice have not been answered by the Assembly. You plan a protest march on the Assembly.
Settlement of the _________ created problems with the _______.
The ______ still had hard feelings as a result of earlier Indian ___.
- After the Yemassee War, SC and the resident Native Americans were at peace.
- However, trouble would begin in 1729 when French fur traders pushed the Cherokee for a treaty to trap on their lands
- The French were a major enemy of the British.
- The British in 1730 began negotiations for their own treaty with the Cherokee.
- The Cherokee signed a letter of friendship with the British.
- The Indians thought they were now allies and could count on the British to fight with them.
- The British thought that the Indians were now subjects of the King, and would now have to follow the King’s laws.
A Lasting Peace??? Well…
- For almost 30 years the peace lasted
- The British did not take any of the Indians’ land in the west.
- The British even negotiated fairly so they could build 4 forts to protect them from the French and Spanish.
- 1755, the British and Cherokee sign the _____________________.
- The Cherokee agreed to recognize all British _____ as their leaders and turn over all of their lands.
- The British promised to stop the sale of ____, provide more Indian traders, and guarantee fairer _____ and better goods.
- In Indian Giver fashion, the British failed to follow through.
War with the Cherokee
- The British Governor Lyttelton could not control the Indian traders and slowly the relationship fell apart.
- Instead of meeting with the Cherokee, Lyttleton embargoed the Indians, stopping all trade, in an attempt to force them to cooperate.
- In reaction, 1759 the Cherokee started attacking the Western settlements.
- 31 chiefs had gone to negotiate peace were held hostage at Fort Prince George.
- The Indians attacked the fort.
- For revenge the British killed all the hostages.
Cherokees at War
- The Cherokee killed hundreds of the Uppers.
- A benefit of being a royal colony, 1200 British troops were sent to fight.
- They burned the Cherokee villages and crops, also killing the women and children.
- 1760, 1600 more troops were sent, they drove the Cherokee into the mountains.
- This brought the fighting to an end.
The Treaty of Augusta
- 10 November 1763, the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Catawba, and Choctaw signed the Treaty of Augusta.
- In exchange for a small reserve of land near Rock Hill, the Indians agreed to stop fighting and give up much of their land.
- Also a border line was to be drawn so that no whites could settle in the West.
- Proclamation of 1763 enforced this agreement.
- All the problems could have been avoided had the British not failed to live up to their agreements.
- Cause by failure to negotiate fair prices, and ideas of land ownership.
- Each side had lost trust in the other.
It’s Your Turn!
- What could have been done to avoid the bloodshed?
A Changing Colony
The first _____ in the Americas were not slaves but Spanish explorers.
The First permanent Africans in the North America were indentured ____.
Later Africans were brought as indentured servants but eventually were held in s_____, because Indian ______ had not worked out.
Slavery in South Carolina
- Slavery in SC was different
- The first slaves were brought from Barbados.
- Large-scale slavery began in 1690s when economic success started.
- By 1700 there were a few thousand but, and this is a BIG BUT, by 1770 there were more than 80,000.
- The total population of SC at this time was only 130,000
- The slavery was so cruel that there were slave rebellions
The Stono Rebellion
- The most famous of all slave revolts in SC.
- Two causes
- In 1738, a Spanish law offered freedom to any slave who escaped to ________.
- This law gave good reason for slaves to revolt or runaway
- Sixty slaves killed 20 white settlers
- The state militia killed 40 slaves
- Fearing future revolts the Assembly passed the slave code
- Set penalties for cruel treatment
- Put slaves under tighter control
- These actions did not stop all revolts but made it more difficult
SC leaders believed it was the responsibility of the parents to educate.
- Education was different for different groups
- At first an educational system did not exist.
- The original reason for an education was so people could read the Bible.
- So only ______ children were educated.
Free Schools??? Really???
- The first free schools in SC required the students to pay a tuition.
- the only thing free about them was the land given for the schools to be built on.
- However, 12 needy children were to be educated for free.
- Even with the schools, many of the wealthy families sent there children to private schools.
- Poor families were less likely to send children to school at all.
- The parents were mostly illiterate and did not see the value of educating their children.
- Also, farmers needed their children home for help.
- The majority of the SC population would remain illiterate for most of the 1800s
- And most of my students show strong signs of it!!!!!!
- Many of the colonial attitudes toward education still exist in SC today!
Education for Blacks
- Education was even less available for ______.
- Most slave owners did not want their ______ educated
- A slave who understood the concept of freedom may revolt or escape
- A racist belief that also existed that Blacks were incapable of learning.
- Some _______ organizations started educating slaves for the purpose of saving their souls.
A Growing Population
- SC had one of the fastest growing populations of the British colonies.
- But, and this is a BIG BUT, it was not capable of sustaining the population until 1770.
- Cause being disease, Indian wars, infant mortality, and poor sanitation raised the killed rate.
- No forms of modern medicine to combat diseases.
- Children mortality rate was as high as 80 percent
- ¼-½ of adults who lived to be 20 were dead before 40
- In some places death rates were higher than birth rates
- The really BIG OL’ BUT was that the population only grew because more immigrants and slaves kept arriving, raising the population.