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Small Animal Food and Environmental Allergies . Heather Haskins Emily Mercer. Contents. Atopic Dermatitis Allergic Contact/Inhalant Dermatitis Food Allergy Dermatitis. Atopic Dermatitis. Inherited type I hypersensitivity reaction to environmental allergens.

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contents
Contents
  • Atopic Dermatitis
  • Allergic Contact/Inhalant Dermatitis
  • Food Allergy Dermatitis
atopic dermatitis
Atopic Dermatitis
  • Inherited type I hypersensitivity reaction to environmental allergens
what is a type i hypersensitivity reaction
What is a type I hypersensitivity reaction?
  • Allergen contact induces allergen-specific IgE antibody production leading to memory cell hyper reactivity upon reexposure
breeds most commonly affected by atopic dermatitis
Breeds most commonly affected by Atopic Dermatitis
  • West Highland white terriers
  • Wire-haired fox terrier
  • Cairn terrier
  • Scottish terrier
  • English setter
  • Miniature schnauzer
  • Lhasa apso
  • Chinese shar-pei
clinical signs of atopic dermatitis
Clinical Signs of Atopic Dermatitis
  • Pruritis
  • Self-inflicted excoriations
  • Salivary staining
  • Alopecia
  • Lichenification
  • Hyperpigmentation
  • Otitis externa
clinical signs of atopic dermatitis11
Clinical signs of Atopic Dermatitis
  • Erythema
  • Secondary Infections:
  • Malassezia dermatitis
  • Serous pyoderma
  • Hemorrhagic pyoderma
allergic contact dermatitis
Allergic Contact Dermatitis
  • Type IV hypersensitivity reaction to environmental allergens by direct contact
what is a type iv hypersensitivity reaction
What is a type IV hypersensitivity reaction?
  • Delayed hypersensitivity reaction mediated by lymphocytes, a cell-mediated reaction
common contact allergens
Common Contact Allergens
  • Insecticides in flea collars, sprays, dips
  • Wood preservatives
  • Floor waxes
  • Carpet dyes
  • Some pollens
  • Dermatological drugs
  • Leather products
  • Paints
  • House plants
clinical signs of contact dermatitis acute lesions
Clinical Signs of Contact Dermatitis, Acute Lesions
  • Affects relatively hairless portions of body
  • Erythema
  • Papules
  • Vesicles which rupture to form crusts
clinical signs of contact dermatitis chronic lesions
Clinical Signs of Contact Dermatitis, Chronic Lesions
  • Alopecia
  • Hyperpigmentation
  • Lichenification
  • Self-inflicted trauma
slide17

Atopic Dermatitis

  • Type I hypersensitivity
  • Hyperemia,pruritis
  • Face,nose,eyes,feet, perineum
  • Foods,pollens,fleas, inhaled allergens
  • Intradermal testing, immediate response
  • Eosinophilic filtration, edema
  • Steroids, antihistamines, hyposensitization

Contact Dermatitis

  • Type IV hypersensitivity
  • Hyperemia, vesiculation,alopecia,erythema,
  • Hairless areas
  • Reactive chemicals
  • Delayed response on patch testing
  • Mononuclear cell infiltration, vesiculation
  • Steroids
diagnosing atopic and allergic contact dermatitis
Diagnosing Atopic and Allergic Contact Dermatitis
  • Take skin scraping and perform fecal float
  • IDAT: Intradermal allergy testing
  • In vitro testing: ELISA, RSAT
idat requirements
IDAT Requirements
  • Animal’s allergy season lasts longer than 3 months
  • Medical therapy no longer controls the symptoms
  • Avoidance of allergens is not possible
  • Animal is young and would benefit from long-term immunotherapy
idat test
IDAT Test
  • As a pretest, inject .1ml of 1:100,000 histamine phosphate as the positive control and .1ml of saline as the negative control before performing the full skin test
  • Read the test 10-15 minutes after making the injections
  • A red, firm wheal ~15mm in diameter or 4X the size of saline control bleb is adequate positive response to histamine
in vitro tests elisa rsat
In Vitro Tests:ELISA,RSAT
  • Useful when IDAT not an option
  • Commercially available
  • Sedation is not required
  • Antihistamines and NSAIDS need not be discontinued
  • Lesser amounts of serum needed
  • Lower specificity
treatments
Treatments
  • Hyposensitivity immunotherapy vaccines
  • Corticosteroids
  • Topicals
  • Antihistamines
  • Essential Fatty Acids
  • NSAIDS
immunotherapy with hyposensitization
Immunotherapy with Hyposensitization
  • Allergy vaccines are made for individual patients based on either serologic or IDAT results
  • Goal of therapy: to increase the patient’s ability to tolerate environmental allergens without clinical signs
statistics associated with immunotherapy
Statistics Associated with Immunotherapy
  • ~25% improve in 3 months
  • Another 50% in 6 months
  • Remaining 25% in 6-12 months
food allergy hypersensitivity
Food Allergy Hypersensitivity
  • Suspect if: non seasonal pruritic lesions, no response to steroids or NSAIDS (dogs), no response to progestational drugs (cats)
  • Immediate (type 1) and delayed (type 4) food reactions
breeds most susceptible to food allergy dermatitis
Breeds Most Susceptible to Food Allergy Dermatitis
  • Miniature schnauzer
  • Golden retriever
  • West Highland white terrier
  • Chinese shar-pei
clinical signs of food allergy dermatitis
Clinical Signs of Food Allergy Dermatitis
  • Non seasonal pruritis
  • Ear canal disease that manifests as pruritis and secondary bacterial and yeast infections
  • Blepharitis
  • Generalized seborrhea
  • Papular eruption
diagnosing food allergy dermatitis
Diagnosing Food Allergy Dermatitis
  • Only reliable diagnostic test= food elimination diet
  • Trial diet fed up to 3 months
  • To confirm that food allergy exists, the patient should be rechallenged with previous food and a relapse of clinical signs must occur
most frequent food allergens dogs
Most Frequent Food Allergens (Dogs)
  • Beef
  • Chicken
  • Corn
  • Wheat
  • Soy
  • milk
hypoallergenic test diet
Hypoallergenic Test Diet
  • Feed limited number of food-stuffs
  • Dogs: 1:1 mix of pinto beans and potatoes
  • Cats: lamb based baby food, without onion
  • Prescription diet
  • Do not give palatable meds such as heart worm preventatives, vitamins
food allergy treatments
Food Allergy Treatments
  • Home made diets consisting of balance of protein, carbohydrate, vitamins, minerals, and taurine for cats
  • Commercially available limited-allergen diets
two cases theodore and toby
Two cases: Theodore and Toby
  • Theodore “Teddy”
  • 11 years old
  • Neutered male
  • Lhasa apso
teddy s history of skin problems
Teddy’s history of skin problems
  • Scabies
  • Fleas
  • Year round pruritus
teddy s therapy
Teddy’s Therapy
  • Weekly baths
  • Steroid therapy during intense flare-ups
toby s problems
Toby’s problems
  • Toby: 1 ½ years, neutered male, black lab/basset hound mix
  • Chronic yeast infection – otitis externa
toby s food allergy
Toby’s Food Allergy
  • Hill’s Z/D food elimination diet for 6 months
  • Hill’s D/D duck and rice diet fed daily
  • No other treats
  • Ice cubes
food elimination diet
Food Elimination Diet
  • Hill’s Z/D Ultra Low Allergen food
  • Side effects
  • Fed for specified period of time
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Trial and Error
  • Individuality of each patient
references
References:
  • The Merck Veterinary Manual 8th edition, Aiello, Mays 1998 Merck & Co. INC.
  • Veterinary Pathology 6th edition, Jones, Hunt, King 1997 Williams & Wilkins
  • Saunders Manual of Small Animal Practice 2nd edition, Birchard and Sherding 2000 W.B Saunders Company
  • Veterinary Immunology 6th edition, Tizard, W.B Saunders Co. 2000
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