Research methods in criminology
Download
1 / 47

Research Methods in Criminology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 153 Views
  • Uploaded on

Research Methods in Criminology. 1.Assignment # 1 2.Research 3.Research methods. Why conduct research?. Some want to answer practical questions (“Will a reduction in average class size from 25 to 20 increase student writing skills?”)

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Research Methods in Criminology' - Leo


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Research methods in criminology

Research Methods in Criminology

1.Assignment # 1

2.Research

3.Research methods


Why conduct research
Why conduct research?

  • Some want to answer practical questions (“Will a reduction in average class size from 25 to 20 increase student writing skills?”)

  • Others want to make informed decision (“Should our school introduce extracurricular activities to reduce deviant behavior of students?”)

  • Still others want to change society (“What can be done to reduce rape?”)

  • Critics of scientific research in criminology view it as a detailed elaboration of what any person with common sense know


Sense and nonsense about crime walker 1989

Females and the elderly fear crime because they are the most heavily victimized of all groups

Victims of crime seldom know their offenders

The typical criminal offender is either unemployed or on welfare

The larger the city, the greater the likelihood its residents will be victims of crime.

Rates of victimization are higher for males than females and for younger people

In a large proportion of violent crimes, victims know their offenders

Knowledge of imprisoned criminals indicates that most criminals have jobs and very few are welfare dependent

The residents of smaller cities have higher rates for certain crimes: assault, personal larceny, and residential burglary

Sense and Nonsense about crime (Walker, 1989)


Demographic characteristics victims and offenders 1976 2002
Demographic characteristics (victims and offenders, 1976-2002)

Rate per 100,000 population


Demographic characteristics victims and offenders 1976 20021
Demographic characteristics (victims and offenders, 1976-2002)

Rate per 100,000 population


Sense and nonsense about crime walker 19891

Females and the elderly fear crime because they are the most heavily victimized of all groups

Victims of crime seldom know their offenders

The typical criminal offender is either unemployed or on welfare

The larger the city, the greater the likelihood its residents will be victims of crime.

Rates of victimization are higher for males than females and for younger people

In a large proportion of violent crimes, victims know their offenders

Knowledge of imprisoned criminals indicates that most criminals have jobs and very few are welfare dependent

The residents of smaller cities have higher rates for certain crimes: assault, personal larceny, and residential burglary

Sense and Nonsense about crime (Walker, 1989)


The victim offender relationship
The Victim-Offender Relationship heavily victimized of all groups

  • Three types of relationships are often identified:

  • Familial (especially spouses and siblings)

  • Acquaintances (including friends, girlfriends, boyfriends, neighbors, and coworkers)

  • Strangers


Ucr data
UCR data heavily victimized of all groups

  • The majority of homicides known to police involve acquaintances (57%)

  • Relatives (22%)

  • Strangers (21%)


Homicides committed by women
Homicides committed heavily victimized of all groupsby women

  • Female-perpetrated homicides account for 10-12% of the overall homicides

  • Who do women kill?

  • The answer is those closest to them, with whom they live (intimate partners, or ex-partners and family members)

  • Over the period 1995-2001, intimate partners accounted for 32% of female-perpetrated homicides


Offender characteristics
Offender characteristics heavily victimized of all groups

  • Typical intimate partner killer is one aged b/w 25 and 40, with below-average level of educational attainment, who is likely to unemployed and from lower-class background (Mann, 1996, Goetting, 1987)


Method of killing
Method of killing heavily victimized of all groups

  • Women usually kill their partner with a knife or sharp instrument (78%)

  • Poisoning (6.2%)

  • Blunt instrument (2.6%)

  • Arson (2.2%)

  • Shooting (2.0%)


Weapon use in murder
Weapon use in Murder heavily victimized of all groups

  • A firearm (handgun) is used in about two-thirds of all homicides (predominantly males)

  • Knives or other cutting instruments (predominantly females)

  • Personal weapons (hands, fists, and feet)

  • Blunt objects

  • Strangulation

  • Contrary to media images, poison and explosives are rarely used as murder weapons


Sense and nonsense about crime walker 19892

Females and the elderly fear crime because they are the most heavily victimized of all groups

Victims of crime seldom know their offenders

The typical criminal offender is either unemployed or on welfare

The larger the city, the greater the likelihood its residents will be victims of crime.

Rates of victimization are higher for males than females and for younger people

In a large proportion of violent crimes, victims know their offenders

Knowledge of imprisoned criminals indicates that most criminals have jobs and very few are welfare dependent

The residents of smaller cities have higher rates for certain crimes: assault, personal larceny, and residential burglary

Sense and Nonsense about crime (Walker, 1989)


Homicide rates
Homicide rates heavily victimized of all groups


The proportion of intimate homicides differs by type of area
The proportion of intimate homicides differs by type of area heavily victimized of all groups

Intimate homicides (spouses, ex-spouses, boyfriends, and girlfriends) made up a larger percentage of murders in rural areas than in suburban or urban areas


Research as an attack on common sense
Research as an attack on common sense heavily victimized of all groups

  • Hirshi and Stark (1969) in “Hellfire and Delinquency” have found a weak relationship b/w church attendance and nondeliquency

  • “damned if you do and damned if you don’t”

  • Study was attacked as false, stupid, or an illustration of inadequate methods

  • Had they found a strong relationship, they would have been accused of wasting time on the common sense knowledge


Research as the use of standardized systematic procedures in the search of knowledge

Pure research heavily victimized of all groups

for the sake of scientific knowledge

Construction of theories of models that allow for a better understanding of criminal behavior

No immediate direct relevance

Applied research

Practical goal in mind

Development of strategies intended to address the problem of crime

Research as the use of standardized systematic procedures in the search of knowledge


Purposes of research
Purposes of Research heavily victimized of all groups

  • Exploration, Description, and Explanation (Earl Babbie, 1999)

  • Explorationprovides beginning familiarity with a topic

  • To satisfy the researcher’s curiosity

  • To test the feasibility of undertaking a more extensive study

  • To develop the methods to be employed in any subsequent study


Description
Description heavily victimized of all groups

  • Describe situation or events

  • U.S. Census, UCR

  • Computation of crime rates for different cities

  • Many qualitative studies aim primarily at description


Explanation
Explanation heavily victimized of all groups

  • Explain things

  • Reporting why some cities have higher crime rates than others involve explanation


Quantitative and qualitative

Hypothesis heavily victimized of all groups

Data are in the form of numbers from precise measurement

Theory is largely causal and deductive

Replication is possible

Analysis proceeds by using statistics, tables, or charts

No hypothesis

Data are in the form of words and images from documents, observations, and transcripts

Theory noncausal and inductive

Replication is rare

Analysis proceeds by extracting themes or generalizations (although numbers are possible)

Quantitative and Qualitative


Quantitative and qualitative1
Quantitative and Qualitative heavily victimized of all groups

  • Two logical systems

  • Deductive logic-(hypothesis, observations, empirical generalizations, theory)

  • Inductive logic (observations, empirical generalizations, theory)


A model of the research process
A model of the Research Process heavily victimized of all groups

THEORY

Induction

Deduction

FINDINGS

HYPOTHESIS

Analysis

Operationalization

DATA

GATHERING

RESEARCH

DESIGN

Measurement


Qualitative research on diversity
Qualitative Research on Diversity heavily victimized of all groups

  • Educational system

  • Manners and everyday interactions

  • Friendship and social activity


Manners and everyday interactions
Manners and everyday interactions heavily victimized of all groups

  • “Americans ask routinely ”How are you doing” but they are not interested in how I am doing”

  • “American smile” has a different meaning than smile in my culture. Here it is a polite greeting, nothing more…”

  • “I feel that people who smile at me are insincere because their smile appears suddenly and then disappears also suddenly”


Manners and everyday interactions1
Manners and everyday interactions heavily victimized of all groups

  • “Americans are obsessed with cleaning of their bodies, but they routinely put their feet on a chair or even small coffee table….this does not go along with hygiene”

  • “All my Americans friends do not take off their shoes at home. It seems to me that they can bring a lot of bacteria and viruses into their homes”


Friendship and social activity
Friendship and social activity heavily victimized of all groups

  • “If I cook my real national food, no one from my department will try it…I need to Americanize my native food to make it attractive to my American class-mates”.

  • “It is to difficult for us to make American friends. Although, Americans are talkative and friendly, they are not opened to new relationships”

  • “Usually it takes much more time to establish a friendship with Americans than with people of my own culture”


Research methods in criminology1
Research Methods in Criminology heavily victimized of all groups

  • Experiments

  • Survey research

  • Field research

  • Content analysis

  • Existing data research

  • Comparative research

  • Evaluation research


Classic experiment
Classic Experiment heavily victimized of all groups

  • At least two groups (control and experimental)

  • Randomly assign people to groups

  • Treat the experimental group by manipulation the independent variable

  • Observe the effect of the treatment on the dependent variable in the experimental group

  • Compare the dependent variable differences in the experimental and control groups

  • Control is crucial (to eliminate alternative explanations)


Experimental research
Experimental research heavily victimized of all groups

  • Researchers use deception to control what the subjects believe is occurring

  • Researchers intentionally mislead subjects through verbal or written instructions

  • It may involve the use of confederates or stooges –people who pretend to be subjects but who actually work for the researcher

  • For realistic deception, researchers may invent false treatment and dependent variables to keep subjects unaware of true ones (ethical issues)


Laud humphrey s tearoom trade 1970
Laud Humphrey’s “Tearoom Trade” (1970) heavily victimized of all groups

  • Study of impersonal sexual activity between male homosexuals

  • “Where the average guy go just to get a blow job” and “Who are they”

  • Observational research (how men approach each other and how they negotiate sex)

  • License plate numbers

  • Health care research


Laud humphrey s tearoom trade 19701
Laud Humphrey’s “Tearoom Trade” (1970) heavily victimized of all groups

  • Middle class

  • High educational level

  • Mostly married with children

  • Only one nonconventional thing about them-”tearoom” for anonymous sex

  • Great scandal (police could demand the names of the subjects)


The minneapolis domestic violence experiment 1983
The Minneapolis Domestic heavily victimized of all groupsViolence Experiment (1983)

  • Goal was to find the most

    effective strategy

  • Three groups: two with different treatment and control

  • Police officers volunteering to take whatever action was dictated by a random system: instruction in an envelope

  • Three different instructions: (1) arrest the suspect; (2) separate or remove the suspect from the scene for 8 hours; (3) advise and mediate


Minneapolis domestic violence experiment
Minneapolis Domestic heavily victimized of all groupsViolence Experiment

  • Victims have been interviewed every two weeks for the next 6 months, police records have been monitored as well

  • Most influential policy experiment

  • Arrest works more effectively in deterring domestic violence


Experiments in criminology
Experiments in Criminology heavily victimized of all groups

  • Not always possible (ethical issues)

  • Long-term study

  • Quasi-experiments or natural experiments

  • Example: Effect of the decision to conduct crackdown on drinking and driving by a local police force (planned interventions)

  • Occasionally, natural events (catastrophe or tornadoes) might substitute planned interventions


Strengths weaknesses

the heavily victimized of all groupsonly method that allows us to test the causal relationships between variables

Random assignment of subjects to experimental and control groups allows us to test our hypotheses

In real life, only rarely one variable actually a cause of another one

Difficult to test very complex hypotheses (difficult to manipulate and control more than one or two variables)

Ethical issues

Strengths Weaknesses


Survey research
Survey Research heavily victimized of all groups

  • Surveyis a series of questions asked of a number of people and designed to measure the attitudes, beliefs, values, and personality traits

  • Based on sampling


Different research designs
Different research designs heavily victimized of all groups

Cross Sectional Design

1990

41-50

51-60

61-70

71-80

Cohort Study

1990 2000

41-50 41-50

51-60 51-60

61-70 61-70

71-80 71-80

Trend Study

1990 2000

41-50 41-50

51-60 51-60

61-70 61-70

71-80 71-80

Panel Study

1990 2000

41-50* 41-50

51-60* 51-60*

61-70* 61-70*

71-80* 71-80*

+81*

Denotes comparison

* Denotes same individuals


Observation
Observation heavily victimized of all groups

  • Observation is a research technique in which a researcher directly observe the behavior of individuals in their usual social environments

  • Observational research is often called field research


Different strategies
Different strategies heavily victimized of all groups

  • Complete Participant –researcher goes “undercover” and does not tell people being observed that he/she is doing research

  • Complete Observer –researcher views things from a distance or one-way mirror

  • Participant Observer – people know that they are observed


Strengths weaknesses1

Observation of behavior in natural context heavily victimized of all groups

Get information about those individuals who cannot fill out survey or respond orally (children)

Relatively small groups can be observed at once

Labor-intensive

Can be subjective

Hawthorne effect (participation in research can influence subjects)

Strengths Weaknesses


Life history and case studies
Life history and case studies heavily victimized of all groups

  • In-depth analysis of one or a few cases

  • Qualitative research

  • Sutherland’s “The Professional Thief” (1937)

  • Shaw's “The Jack-Roller” (1930)


Unobtrusive research
Unobtrusive Research heavily victimized of all groups

  • Unobtrusive methods are strategies for studying people’s behavior in ways that do not have an impact on the subjects

  • Homicide rate


Unobtrusive methods
Unobtrusive methods heavily victimized of all groups

  • Artifacts (archeologists use)

  • Use of existing statistics

  • Content analysis


Strengths weaknesses2

We do not need cooperation of people being studied heavily victimized of all groups

Research does not affect the behavior of people being studied

Study social things only after they have occurred and left traces

These traces must solid enough to last until can be observed

If we use secondary data we do not have control over the quality of these data

Strengths Weaknesses


Triangulation
Triangulation heavily victimized of all groups

  • Every method has both strengths and weaknesses

  • Whenever possible researchers use more than one method to obtain data

  • Triangulation – methods are combined so that the strengths of one method overcome the weakness of another method


Example of triangulation
Example of Triangulation heavily victimized of all groups

  • Suppose you study the impact of neighborhood problems on youth development

  • Census information (unobtrusive) about poverty level in neighborhoods

  • Survey among youth and parents

  • Observations


ad