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Organic Compounds - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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T he F our M ajor G roups of O rganic C ompounds: C arbohydrates, L ipids, P roteins, and N ucleic A cids; and T heir F unctions in L iving S ystems. C arbon a M ost V ersatile A tom. -The Carbon atom has 6 protons 6 neutrons 6 electrons

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The Four Major Groups of Organic Compounds: Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids; and Their Functions in Living Systems

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Carbon a Most Versatile Atom

  • -The Carbon atom has

  • 6 protons

  • 6 neutrons

  • 6 electrons

  • -Carbon has 4 electrons in its outermost energy level, therefore it needs four electrons to complete its octet.

  • -Carbon covalently shares

  • electrons with up to four other atoms. This characteristic makes Carbon very versatile when it comes to chemical structures.

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Carbon’s Chemical Properties and Molecular Diversity

Carbon Skeletons Vary

  • Carbon chains

    • Vary in length

    • May be linear or branched

    • May contain only c-c single bonds or may contain double and/or triple bonds at various locations

  • Carbon rings

    • May contain only single c-c bonds, or may contain double bonds

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Functional Groups Confer Specific Properties to Carbon Compounds

  • Carbon skeletons come in may shapes and forms. These are basically Hydrocarbons (molecules composed of only Carbon and Hydrogen atoms).

  • Functional groups, have specific properties characteristic to their chemical structure and further add variety to the Hydrocarbon skeleton molecular structures.

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Functional Groups and Their Functions

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Monomers ↔PolymersDehydration ↔ Hydrolysis

  • Monomers are molecules that are chemically bonded through dehydration synthesis to make polymers, which are the functional macromolecules.

  • Polymers can be broken down into their monomer components through hydrolysis.

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Carbohydrates aka Saccharides Are Aldoses and Ketoses

  • Carbohydrates have the atomic ratio C:H2O.

  • They are composed of many monosaccharide (monomers) chemically combined through dehydration synthesis into polysaccharides (polymers).

  • Glucose C6H12O6 is made by plants and is the most common monosaccharide.

  • Serve as energy sources for plants, animals and other organisms. Converted into ATP energy.

  • Serve as structural molecules in plants and other organisms.

  • Dietary source: plant products.

  • Cellulose is bulk or fiber.

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Lipids Are Hydrophobic

  • Lipids include:

    fatty acids, steroids,

    phospholipids, and waxes.

  • Because they are not solublein water, they are good structural, insulation, transport, and storage macromolecules,

    such as:

    • Adipose tissue

    • cell membranes components

    • hormones

    • triglycerides

    • oils and waxes

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Fatty Acids Are Long Hydrocarbons with a Carboxylic Acid Functional Group

  • Saturated fatty acids usually come from animal sources and are solid at room temperature, these are high in caloric value.

  • Unsaturated fatty acids usually come from plant sources and are liquid at room temperature, these are lower in caloric value.

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Triglycerides: Three Fatty Acids Dehydrated to One Glycerol

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. A steroid’s structure is composed of carbon rings.

. Steroids serve as the structural components of many hormones, such as

estrogen and testosterone.

. Steroids are essential for maintaining the fluidity of cell membranes.

. Diets rich in saturated fats promote accumulation of LDL “bad cholesterol” in the wall of arteries, reducing blood flow and promoting hypertension and the incidence of strokes.

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  • Proteins are the structural components of living tissue. They also serve as enzymes, hormones, and immunoglobulins, among many other roles.

  • Proteins are composed of amino acids (a.a.). We acquire a.a. by consuming meat, fowl, fish, dairy, eggs, legumes, and nuts

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Proteins: Composed of Amino Acids

  • Amino acids are the monomers that are dehydrated to form polypeptides or proteins.

  • Humans have about 20 different amino acids from which proteins are synthesized. The difference between one protein and another has to do with the number of amino acids that a protein contains and the unique sequences in which the amino acids are arranged.

  • Protein synthesis occurs in the ribosomes of cells and is controlled by genetic information.

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Protein Synthesis:

  • Amino acids are chemically combined through dehydration synthesis by peptide bonds to form polypeptides (protein)

  • The sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide is determined by genetic information

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AProtein Structure Determines Its Function

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Nucleic Acids Have Sugars, Nitrogenous Basesand Organic Phosphate Components

  • Nucleic Acids serve as information macromolecules, such as DNA and RNA. (We will study these further in the future.)

  • Another type of Nucleic Acid, ATP, serves as the energy currency of cells. (We will study ATP further in the future.)

  • Nucleotides (picture at left) are the molecular components of Nucleic Acids.

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DNA for Hereditary Information

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Structure Is Always Related to Function

  • Living organisms require thousands of different types of molecules to maintain their structure and sustain their body’s functions.

  • The ability of Carbon to bond with four other atoms is the basis for the vast variety of chemical structures found in organisms.