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NUTRITION AND GROWTH. EVERY LIVING ORGANISM MUST ACQUIRE 2 THINGS FROM ITS ENVIRONMENT IF IT IS TO GROW AND REPRODUCE: STRUCTURAL UNITS ENERGY SOURCE GROUPING ORGANISMS BASED ON NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS: PHOTOHETEROTROPHS PHOTOAUTOTROPHS CHEMOHETEROTROPHS CHEMOAUTOTROPHS.

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EVERY LIVING ORGANISM MUST ACQUIRE 2 THINGS FROM ITS ENVIRONMENT IF IT IS TO GROW AND REPRODUCE:

STRUCTURAL UNITS

ENERGY SOURCE

GROUPING ORGANISMS BASED ON NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS:

PHOTOHETEROTROPHS

PHOTOAUTOTROPHS

CHEMOHETEROTROPHS

CHEMOAUTOTROPHS


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EXAMPLES OF ORGANISMS FOUND IN EACH GROUP ENVIRONMENT IF IT IS TO GROW AND REPRODUCE:

HOW DO ORGANISMS ACQUIRE THEIR NUTRITIONAL NEEDS?

IT IS PROVIDED TO THEM IN A MEDIUM

MEDIA - LAB OR ENVIRONMENT

ALL MEDIA MUST HAVE THE FOLLOWING CHEMICAL ELEMENTS FOR GROWTH

- CARBON (C)

- NITROGEN (N)

- WATER(H2O)

MINERALS(S,P,Ca,Mg,Na, etc.)


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CARBOHYDRATES ARE SELECTED BECAUSE: ENVIRONMENT IF IT IS TO GROW AND REPRODUCE:

WATER SOLUBLE

READILY ACCESSIBLE IN LAB AND NATURE

USUALLY NON TOXIC IN DILUTE CONCENTRATION

EASILY OXIDIZED AND REDUCED, LITTLE MODIFICATION NEEDED


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SOME ORGANISMS CAN NOT USE CARBOHYDRATES AS A CARBON SOURCE. ENVIRONMENT IF IT IS TO GROW AND REPRODUCE:

THEY WILL USE ALCOHOLS, AMINO ACIDS, FATS, ETC.

NITROGEN SOURCES: 1) INORGANIC; 2) ORGANIC

INORGANIC SOURCE : NITROGEN GAS(N2) OR NH4CL/(NH4)2SO4

- NITROGEN FIXATION

- SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIPS.


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ORGANIC NITROGEN SOURCE ENVIRONMENT IF IT IS TO GROW AND REPRODUCE:


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  • PROTEIN ENVIRONMENT IF IT IS TO GROW AND REPRODUCE:

  • BUILDING BLOCKS OF PROTEINS ARE AMINO ACIDS



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MINERALS: PROTEINS

MICRONUTRIENTS: ZN, CU, CO, MN, MO

MACRONUTRIENTS: P, Mg, Ca, S, Na

WATER - BIOLOGICAL SOLVENT THAT COMPOSES 80-85% OF THE WEIGHT OF CELLS.


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SUBSTANCES WHICH MAY BE ADDED TO MEDIA BUT ARE NOT ALWAYS REQUIRED.

- GROWTH FACTORS

BUFFERS

SOLIDIFYING AGENTS

  • STERILIZATION OF MEDIA

    - AUTOCLAVING

    • FILTRATION

      a) NEGATIVE

      b) POSITIVE


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CLASSIFICATION OF MEDIA

SYNTHETIC OR CHEMICALLY DEFINED MEDIA

A CHEMICAL FORMULA CAN BE WRITTEN FOR EVERY INGREDIENT

COMPLEX MEDIA

A CHEMICAL FORMULA CANNOT BE WRITTEN FOR EVERY INGREDIENT


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OXYGEN GAS REQUIREMENTS OF MICROORGANISMS

OBLIGATE AEROBES

FACULTATIVES

AEROTOLERANTS

MICROAEROPHILICS

OBLIGATE ANAEROBES


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GROWTH

DEFINITION: INCREASE IN MICROBIAL MASS OR INCREASE IN THE NUMBER OF CELLS

GENERATION TIME: THE TIME IT TAKES AN ORGANISM TO REPRODUCE

BINARY FISSION

SHORTER FOR PROCARYOTES THAN EUCARYOTES

ENVIRONMENT EFFECTS GENERATION TIME


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WE CAN DEMONSTRATE TYPICAL BACTERIAL GROWTH BY PREPARING A POPULATION GROWTH CURVE.

THE BACTERIAL GROWTH CURVE

LAG PHASE

LOG OR EXPONENTIAL PHASE

STATIONARY PHASE

DEATH OR DECLINE PHASE


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