MODERN BUSINESS ENGLISH. Tamara A.Susetyo-Salim. Manjemen Informasi & Dokumentasi FAKULTAS ILMU PENGETAHUAN BUDAYA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA. Compound and Other Nouns – Plural Forms . PLURAL OF COMPOUND NOUNS.
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MODERN BUSINESS ENGLISH
Manjemen Informasi & Dokumentasi
FAKULTAS ILMU PENGETAHUAN BUDAYA
A compound nounconsists of two or more words used together as one name. Compound nouns are formed in several ways; for example:
TWO NOUNS :
ADJECTIVE PLUS NOUN:
NOUN PLUS DESCRIPTIVE PHRASE:
WORDS OTHER THAN NOUNS:
Note that there is no consistent pattern for writing compound nouns. Some are written without a space or a hyphen between the words; others are written with a space between the words; and still others are written with a hyphen between the words. When in doubt as to how to write a particular compound noun, consult an up-to-date dictionary and note the part-of-speech label for the particular entry. As illustrated below, a compound may be written one way as a noun and another way as a verb. For example:
1. Compound Nouns Written as One Word. To form the plural of most compound nouns written as one word, change the last element of the compound to its plural form by following the rules presented in Unit 1. Remember that the last element may be an irregular noun.
Payday sandwich takeover grandchild
Paydays sandwiches takeovers grandchildren
Compound Nouns Written With Spaces or Hyphens. If a compound noun consists of two nouns written with a space between them, pluralize the second noun.
Carbon copy money order car wash coffee break
Carbon copies money orders car washes coffee breaks
If the compound noun consists of a noun plus another part of speech or a phrase, change the main element to its plural form. Note that some compound nouns of this type are written with spaces and some are written with hyphens.
Account payable letter of credit sister-in-law
Accounts payable letters of credit sisters-in-law
To form the plural of a compound noun that does not contain a noun element, change the last element to its plural form.
get-together hang up write-off drive-in
get-togethers hang-ups write-offs drive-ins
As illustrated below, some compound nouns have more than one acceptable plural form.
attorney general court-martial
attorneys general courts-martial
OR attorney generals ALSO court-martial
Spot Check 1
1. footnote 1._______________________
2. credit card 2. _______________________
3. Counteroffer 3. _______________________
4. brother-in-law 4. _______________________
5. Wristwatch 5. _______________________
6. board foot6 6. _______________________
7. aftershock 7. _______________________
8. cross-reference 8. _______________________
9. account receivable 9. _______________________
10. mainstay 10. _______________________
3. Most Abbreviations. For most abbreviations, form the plural by adding s to the singular abbreviation.
apt. dept. mo. yr. hwy. pkg. mgr. No.
apts. depts. mos. yrs. hwys. pkgs. mgrs. Nos.
4. Abbreviations Ending With a Capital Letter. Preferably, form the plural of an abbreviation that consists of capital letters or that ends with a capital letter by adding only an 5 to the singular abbreviation. Note that many abbreviations consisting entirely of capital letters are commonly written without periods.
CPA Ph.D. YWCA M.D. VIP VCR
CPAs Ph.D.s YWCAs M.D.s VIPs VCRs
5. Abbreviations Ending With an Uncapitalized Letter. To form the plural of an abbreviation that consists of uncapitalized letters followed by periods or that ends with an uncapitalized letter followed by a period, add an apostrophe and s to the singular abbreviation.
c.o.d. f.o.b. M.Ed.
c.o.d.’s (BUT : CODs) f.o.b.’s M.Ed.’s
Cross t’s dot I’s u’s or v’s
A few Cs some Ds Ps and Qs
For the sake of clarity, use an apostrophe and s to form the plural of each of the following capital letters:
Also, for the sake of consistency of style within a letter or other document, express the plurals of capital letters in the same manner.
Some students' report cards contain nothing but A's and B's. (not: Some students' report cards contain nothing but A's and Bs.)
For symbols and for numbers written in figures, add only an s to form the plural.
&s #s 5s 20s 1900s
Following the rules for other nouns, add s or es to form the plurals of numbers written in words.
fives sixes twenties nineteen hundreds
7. Words Referred to as Words. In most instances, form the plural of a word referred to as a word by adding s or es.
Ifs, ands, or buts yeses and noes
ins and outs whys and wherefores
However, use an apostrophe and 5 if the plural form is unfamiliar or is likely to be misread.
or s or nors that's and which's
If a word already contains an apostrophe, add only an .v to form the plural.
can'ts don'ts haven'ts shouldn'ts
The abbreviations of many customary terms of weight and measure are also the same for singular and plural, and the trend is to write them without periods.
ft (foot or feet) 1 ft 6 ft
in (inch or inches) 1 in 3 in
oz (ounce or ounces) 1 oz 12 oz
Other customary units have two widely used plural forms, but the trend is to use the form without the s. Also note the trend toward omitting periods.
lb OR lbs 7 lb OR 7 lbs
qt OR qts 4 qt OR 4 qts
yd OR yds 3 yd OR 3 yds
p. (page) p. 25
pp. (pages) pp. 25-30
f (and the following page) pp. 18 f.
ff, (and the following pages) pp. 12 ff.
10.Nouns With Numbers. When accompanied by numbers, certain nouns use the same form for singular and plural. These terms include hundred, thousand, dozen, and gross.
five hundred 16 dozen one million
four score 12 gross one dozen
three thousand $10 million one hundred
Although abbreviations are frequently used in technical writing, tabulations, and business forms, most terms are written in full in letters, memos, and other documents. Such abbreviations as Mr., Mrs., Ms., Jr., c.o.d., a.m., and FBI are customarily abbreviated in all types of communications.
11.I (line) 11._________________
12.v. (verse)12. _________________
13.one million13. _________________
15.A and B15. _________________
16.p. (page)16. _________________
17.L (the letter)17. _________________
18.Form 104018. _________________
19.RN (Registered Nurse)19. _________________
20.bbl (barrel)20. _________________
21.u (the letter)21. _________________
22.in (inch)22. _________________
23.five 2323. _________________
24.no 2424. _________________
25.why 2525. _________________
11. Proper Nouns Ending in cb, sb, s, x, or z. If a proper noun ends in cb, sb, s, x, or z, form the plural by adding es to the singular noun.
Lynch Wals Willis Max Hertz
Lynches Walshes Willises Maxes Hertzes
Exceptions: If a proper noun ending in cb is pronounced as though the cb were a k, add only an s; for example, the plural of Dietrich is Dietrichs.
Also, note that a proper noun such as French or Dutch is plural when it refers to the people of a country. However, if it is the name of a person, form the plural by adding es: Frenches or Dutches, for example.
For the following names, change the y to i and add es if the word Mountains is omitted:
Rocky Mountains Smoky Mountains Allegheny Mountains
the Rockies the Smokies the Alleghenies
12. Other Proper Nouns. For most other proper nouns, form the plural by adding s to the singular noun.
Barbara German Dakota Kelly Riley
Barbaras Germans Dakotas Kellys Rileys
Courtesy and Other Titles With Names of Persons. Titles are most frequently used in the singular form. However, when a title precedes a personal name, the formal style is to pluralize the title; the informal style is to pluralize the name.
14. Titles in Addresses. Plurals of titles in addresses are used as follows:
Mesdames or Mmes., the plural of Mrs., is used frequently in listing the names of married women with different surnames: Mesdames (or Mmes.) Barnes, Carlson, and Davis. Mrs. is more often used when married women have the same surname: the Mrs. Ed-sons.
Either Mses. or Mss. may be used as the plural of Ms. This title, in either its singular or its plural form, may be used with names of women, regardless of their marital status. However, if a married woman uses her husband's first name or initials instead of her own, the title Mrs. should be used (for example, Mrs. David Suarez, not Ms. David Suarez).
Misses, the plural of Miss, is not an abbreviation and therefore is not followed by a period.
Messrs., the plural of Mr., is the abbreviation of Messieurs and is followed by a period. This title is correctly used in addressing a professional partnership composed entirely of men (for example, Messrs. James Hubbard and Robert Shannon, Attorneys-at-Law). However, if a company or corporate name includes the names of persons, do not use Messrs, before the personal names.
INCOREECT : Messrs. Boyd and Warren, Inc.
Messrs. R. K. Lloyd & Co.
CORRECT : Boyd and Warren, Inc.
R. K. Lloyd & Co.
Avoid the plural forms of titles in addresses that involve the names of several people; however, plural forms may be necessary in certain cases. For example, rather than write Messrs. J. R. Collins and W. L. McCormick as the first line of the address, write the name of each person on a separate line and use the appropriate courtesy title before each name.
Mr. J. R. Collins
Mr. W. L McCormick
90 West Waters Avenue
Tampa, R 33615
In the spaces provided, write the plurals of the following nouns.
A. The following sentences show applications of die rules for forming plurals of compound nouns. As you read each sentence, give particular attention to the italicized nouns. The numbers following them refer to the rules presented in this unit.
1. The regional managers²are working on their sales budgets².
2. Sky marshals² have been assigned to prevent sky-jackings¹.
3. Those flashlights¹will be needed in case of blackouts¹.
4. My brothers-in-law² are enrolled in different junior colleges².
5. Some drugstores¹ sell everything from toothbrushes1 to lawn chairs².
6. Do book clubs²offer publications at lower prices than bookstores?¹
7. Both their daughters-in-law²and their grandchildren^ spent the day at an amusement park.
The following sentences illustrate rules for forming the plurals of abbreviations, letters, numbers, symbols, words referred to as words, and proper nouns. The numbers following the italicized terms refer to rules given in this unit.
5 lb potatoes8.
1 L gasoline8.
2 pkgs. of chewing gum3.