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Highway Africa 2001. Making Maps: Integrative Technology for Quality Journalism. J. T. Johnson Professor and Co-director Institute for Analytic Journalism College of Communication - Boston University t o m @ j t j o h n s o n . c o m. Objectives.

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Highway Africa 2001

Making Maps:Integrative Technology for Quality Journalism

J. T. Johnson

Professor and Co-director

Institute for Analytic Journalism

College of Communication - Boston University

t o m @ j t j o h n s o n . c o m


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Objectives

  • Quick introduction to GIS (Geographical Information Systems/Science) -- definitions and concepts

  • GIS = a tool for all aspects of publishing and broadcasting

    • News/editorial -- circulation -- advertising -- marketing -- production

  • Whet appetite for the types of stories better understood and communicated by GIS

  • Trigger some ideas on how to make current stories better

  • Show that all this is knowable, possible and affordable

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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Key points

  • GIS as important as telecommunications, word processing, spreadsheets and data bases to Digital Age journalists

  • GIS is not about making maps, per se.

    • It is about analyzing often large sets of data to generate information – hypotheses, conclusions, insights, new hunches – about widely varied socio-economic phenomena.

  • Maps are one unique aspect/artifact of the methodology. But not the end product: knowledge and insight are.

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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Key points

  • GIS is about being better – more insightful – journalists (Journos good at description, not analysis. GIS will make us better analysts and often supply readers with a better description of event or phenomena.)

  • GIS is about literally showing our readers stories in ways they can quickly grasp.

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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Key points

  • GIS is a rich challenging tool that should be employed throughout the media organization. As such, promotes shared learning and insights.

  • A terrific “I didn’t know that!” device for managers, journos and readers

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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  • GIS Software

  • Database with geocodes

What is needed for GIS?

  • User skills

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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What is GIS- Layers concept illustrated

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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Quick Power of Maps-Table

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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Quick Power of Maps

2000

1997

Source: http://www3.sn.apc.org/africa/afrmain.htm

African Internet Connection Speeds

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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Quick Power of Maps-Same Data

ANGOLA 12.09 3023 1684 4000 82 5 4 192

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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Quick Power of Maps:Same Data/Bar Chart

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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Quick Power of Maps- Same Data

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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Portland, Oregon Crime Mapping Home page

http://www.portlandpolicebureau.com/crimemapper.html

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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Portland, Oregon Crime mapping

Note how database produces graph and map. This Portland, Oregon site at http://www.portlandpolicebureau.com/crimemapper.html

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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Crime Mapping in South Africa

  • South African Crime Mapping and GIS Resourceshttp://www.crimeresearch.org.za/crimemap.html

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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GIS in all departments: Advertising

ADVERTISING Sales? - No. of potential advertisers - # of non-advertisers - Income of town - Age of population

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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Circulation? - # of copies per district - # of dealers per route - Penetration - Time of delivery

GIS in all departments: Circulation

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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Route mapping-DeliveryRoute

Route Mapping

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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Newspaper Route Mapping Resources

  • http://www.esri.com/software/arclogistics/index.html

  • ESRI Routing bibliographyhttp://www.esri.com/software/arclogistics/whatsnew.html

  • RealAudio clips describing ArcLogistics Routehttp://gis.esri.com/esriclips/clip.cfm?ClipID=57http://gis.esri.com/esriclips/clip.cfm?ClipID=55

  • Fleet mgmt. and trackinghttp://www.gisvisionmag.com/software_reviews/fleet.pdf

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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Production? - Prod. employees homes - Toxic waste sites - Copies of varied editions or products

GIS in all departments: Production

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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How Production can use GIS

  • Press status?

    • Repair reports

    • Equipment maintenance schedule

  • Facilities management

    • Clickable Campus #1

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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GIS in all departments: BackOffice

Back office? - Employee homes - Accounts due - Travel time to work - Health-care facilities

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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Backoffice – Facilities Mgmt.

  • Clickable Campus #1http://www.sfsu.edu/clickmap/sfsumap.htm

  • Designing work space

  • Allocating office space

  • Tracking office equipment

  • Building Maintenance

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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Personnel

  • Mapping employees residence

    • Who is available to covering breaking story?

    • Sharing transportation:

      • “Suggested” co-op transit

      • “Ride sharing”

      • Adjusting work schedules to avoid traffic congestion

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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GIS in EditorialEditorial

- Public Health - Taxation- Church membership- Environment- Traffic- Urban sprawl- Political negotiations(e.g. India and Pakistan, Ecuador and Peru, Guatemala and Belize, Russia and Japan, Britain and Argentina)

- Robin sightings

  • Demographics- Crime - Housing- Businesses- Voting patterns/places- Education- Campaign Contributions

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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How Editors Use GIS

  • Fresno [California] Bee Methamphetaminelab story http://www.valleymeth.com/graphics/superlabs.html

  • Philadelphia Inquirer’s daily commuter patterns

  • San Jose Mercury News projected mud slides, building permits

  • Charlotte Observer: “Deciding Desegregation” http://www.charlotte.com/observer/special/deseg/docs/0110about.htm

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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PhillyNgbh1

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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PhillyNgbh2

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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PhillyNgbh3

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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PhillyNgbh4

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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How Editors Use GIS

  • Fresno [California] Bee Methamphetamine lab story http://www.valleymeth.com/graphics/superlabs.html

  • Philadelphia Inquirer’s daily commuter patternshttp://www.smartraveler.com/scripts/phlmap.asp?city=phl&cityname=Philadelphia

  • Charlotte Observer: “Deciding Desegregation” http://www.charlotte.com/observer/special/deseg/docs/0110about.htm

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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How reporters use GIS

  • Census analysis/story telling

    • USAToday http://www.usatoday.com/news/census/index.htm

  • Weather

    • Hurricane Andrew

  • Crime mapping

    • Crime Mapping Research Centerhttp://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/cmrc/

    • Crime mapping tutorial http://www.gis.heinz.cmu.edu/gistutorial/

  • Economics, education, urban development, taxation, voting patterns, environment, traffic

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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USAToday

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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USAToday

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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USA Today

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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USA Today

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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How reporters use GIS

  • Census analysis/story telling

    • USAToday http://www.usatoday.com/news/census/index.htm

  • Crime mapping

    • Crime Mapping Research Centerhttp://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/cmrc/

    • Crime mapping tutorial http://www.gis.heinz.cmu.edu/gistutorial/

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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Weather-Hurricane Andrew

Weather - Hurricane Andrew

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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Orange County, California Bus Study

Orange County, California

Bus Study

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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3DTaxiCrimeMapView1

3D view of Taxi Crime

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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3DTaxiCrimeMapView2

Rotated 3D view of Taxi Crime

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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3DTaxiCrimeGraph

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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How reporters use GIS

  • Census analysis/story telling

    • USAToday http://www.usatoday.com/news/census/index.htm

  • Weather

    • Hurricane Andrew

  • Crime mapping

    • Crime Mapping Research Centerhttp://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/cmrc/

    • Crime mapping tutorial http://www.gis.heinz.cmu.edu/gistutorial/

  • Economics, education, urban development, taxation, voting patterns, environment, traffic

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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Animated mapping

  • Maps and images that can be controlled, on the WWW, but the user.

  • Emphasis is on layering

  • Note, the graphics are tied, in a fundamental way, to the database. Any map is only as good as the database used to create it.

  • Manhattan Timeformations:http://www.skyscraper.org/timeformations/animation.html

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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Concept Mapping

  • Intellectual – or conceptual space -- geography

    • How are ideas related?

    • How are people or places with or tied to ideas/concepts related?

  • Where is cyberspace? How to map it?

    • Atlas of Cyberspace

    • Web Mapping http://www.cybergeography.org/atlas/web_sites.html

  • Mapping how people use a web sitehttp://mappa.mundi.net/maps/maps_022/

  • Show me the Power Players in a society?http://theyrule.orgo.org/

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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Web site content map

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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Fry’s Web site map

Ben Fry's anemone visualization of website usage

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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Mapping cyberspace

VR visualisation of Web traffic

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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PowerPlayers1

http://theyrule.orgo.org/

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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PowerPlayers2

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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PowerPlayers3

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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Dynamic Event Mapping

  • Code-Red (CRv2) worm virus (19 July 2001)http://caida.packet-pushers.com/newframes-small-log.gif

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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Advertising

Production

Circulation

Editorial

Major Points About GIS

  • The hammer and chisel are not the cabinet. (e.g. “The tool is not the product.”)

  • Skillful use of the tool can be applied to many different products with same data but different objectives

  • Skillful use of the tool can be applied to many different products with same data and the same objectives. Ergo…

  • It’s in the interest of all in organization to cooperate in GIS

  • Focus on the infinitive to transact, not the noun of product

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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Major trends in JAGIS (Journalism And GIS)

  • Transparency

    • Easy access to data of all sorts

    • Data-based decision making

    • Vital to informed government, business, culture

  • Dynamic mapping

    • Data/information when and where we want it

  • Concept mapping

    • Reflects pervasive interlocking relationships between people, between ideas, linking decisions to data

  • Geo-location

    • Real time, wireless location of people, events, resources

  • Cyber-geographyhttp://www.cybergeography.org/geography_of_cyberspace.html

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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Conclusion: Why journos need to know about GIS?

  • It can make us better journalists and improves civic contribution. (Philadelphia data)

    • Makes the invisible visible

    • Literally shows the story to our readers

    • Helps readers connect with us and vice versa

  • It can make all aspects of our business run more efficiently, profitably

  • Government and business are using GIS. Ergo, we need to at least know enough about how it works to ask informed questions. And if government is not using it, then we should find out why.

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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Journalism is…

“The central purpose of journalism is to provide citizens with accurate and reliable information they need to function in a free society.'‘Bill Kovach, curator Nieman Foundation Harvard University

HighwayAfrica 2001 — Sept. 2001© J.T.Johnson 2001 http://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001.ppt


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Highway Africa 2001

Making Maps:Integrative Technology for Quality Journalism

Related bibliography found athttp://mmcom.bu.edu/tjohnson/Public/IAJ/Presentations/HA2001biblio.doc

J. T. Johnson

Professor and Co-director

Institute for Analytic Journalism

College of Communication - Boston University

t o m @ j t j o h n s o n . c o m


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