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Lecture 5. Personality. Outline. Introduction Trait Perspectives Social-Cognitive Perspectives Psychodynamic Perspectives Humanistic Perspectives. What is Personality?.

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Lecture 5

Personality


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Outline

  • Introduction

  • Trait Perspectives

  • Social-Cognitive Perspectives

  • Psychodynamic Perspectives

  • Humanistic Perspectives


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What is Personality?

  • A particular pattern of behaviour and thinking prevailing across time and situations that differentiates one person from another (Carlson et al., 2000); a relatively stable predisposition to behave in a certain way (Gray, 2000)


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Trait Perspectives

  • A personality trait is an enduring personal characteristic that reveals itself in a particular pattern of behaviour in a variety of situations (Carlson et al., 2000)


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Trait Perspectives

Aggressiveness

Central

Trait

Argumentativeness

Pugnaciousness

Competitiveness

Surface

Trait

Argues

with

room-

mates

Defends

un-

popular

positions

Writes

letters

to the

editor

Reacts

with

“road

rage”

Picks

fights

in

bars

Fights

when

playing

sports

Works

hard

to

out-

perform

others

Plays

to

win

Behaviour


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Warm

Abstract thinker

Emotionally stable

Dominant

Enthusiastic

Conscientious

Bold

Tender-minded

Suspicious

Imaginative

Shrewd

Apprehensive

Experimenting

Self-sufficient

Controlled

Tense

Cattell’s 16 Personality Factors (16PF)


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Eysenck’s Three-Factor Model

  • Extroversion-Introversion

  • Neuroticism- Emotional Stability

  • Psychoticism- Self-Control


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The Five-Factor Model (The Big Five)

  • Openness

  • Conscientiousness

  • Extroversion

  • Agreeableness

  • Neuroticism


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Trait Perspectives

  • Traits vs. situations

  • Biological foundations


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Social Cognitive Perspectives (Social Learning)

  • Observational learning

  • Expectancies

  • Reciprocal determinism


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Social Cognitive Perspectives, cont.

  • Locus of Control (Rotter)

    • Internal-External

  • Self-efficacy (Bandura)

    • The expectations of success; the belief in one’s own competencies and abilities to perform a task


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Psychodynamic Perspectives:Freud

  • Basic Principles

    • Psychodynamic: mind is in a state of conflict among instincts, reasons, and conscience

    • Unconscious motivation

      • sex (libido)

      • aggression


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Psychodynamic Perspectives: Freud

  • Structures of the mind

    • Id

    • Ego

    • Superego


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Psychodynamic Perspectives:Freud

  • Defense mechanisms

    • Repression

    • Displacement (sublimation)

    • Reaction formation

    • Projection

    • Rationalization

    • Conversion


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Psychodynamic Perspectives:Freud

  • Psychosexual Theory of Personality Development

    • Oral stage (0-1 years)

    • Anal stage (2-3 years)

    • Phallic stage (3-5 years)

    • Latency period (5-12 years)

    • Genital stage (12 years through adulthood)


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Humanistic Perspectives

  • Maslow and Self-Actualization


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Humanistic Perspective, cont.

  • Rogers and Conditions of Worth


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