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Lecture 5. Personality. Outline. Introduction Trait Perspectives Social-Cognitive Perspectives Psychodynamic Perspectives Humanistic Perspectives. What is Personality?.

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lecture 5

Lecture 5

Personality

outline
Outline
  • Introduction
  • Trait Perspectives
  • Social-Cognitive Perspectives
  • Psychodynamic Perspectives
  • Humanistic Perspectives
what is personality
What is Personality?
  • A particular pattern of behaviour and thinking prevailing across time and situations that differentiates one person from another (Carlson et al., 2000); a relatively stable predisposition to behave in a certain way (Gray, 2000)
trait perspectives
Trait Perspectives
  • A personality trait is an enduring personal characteristic that reveals itself in a particular pattern of behaviour in a variety of situations (Carlson et al., 2000)
trait perspectives5
Trait Perspectives

Aggressiveness

Central

Trait

Argumentativeness

Pugnaciousness

Competitiveness

Surface

Trait

Argues

with

room-

mates

Defends

un-

popular

positions

Writes

letters

to the

editor

Reacts

with

“road

rage”

Picks

fights

in

bars

Fights

when

playing

sports

Works

hard

to

out-

perform

others

Plays

to

win

Behaviour

cattell s 16 personality factors 16pf
Warm

Abstract thinker

Emotionally stable

Dominant

Enthusiastic

Conscientious

Bold

Tender-minded

Suspicious

Imaginative

Shrewd

Apprehensive

Experimenting

Self-sufficient

Controlled

Tense

Cattell’s 16 Personality Factors (16PF)
eysenck s three factor model
Eysenck’s Three-Factor Model
  • Extroversion-Introversion
  • Neuroticism- Emotional Stability
  • Psychoticism- Self-Control
the five factor model the big five
The Five-Factor Model (The Big Five)
  • Openness
  • Conscientiousness
  • Extroversion
  • Agreeableness
  • Neuroticism
trait perspectives9
Trait Perspectives
  • Traits vs. situations
  • Biological foundations
social cognitive perspectives social learning
Social Cognitive Perspectives (Social Learning)
  • Observational learning
  • Expectancies
  • Reciprocal determinism
social cognitive perspectives cont
Social Cognitive Perspectives, cont.
  • Locus of Control (Rotter)
    • Internal-External
  • Self-efficacy (Bandura)
    • The expectations of success; the belief in one’s own competencies and abilities to perform a task
psychodynamic perspectives freud
Psychodynamic Perspectives:Freud
  • Basic Principles
    • Psychodynamic: mind is in a state of conflict among instincts, reasons, and conscience
    • Unconscious motivation
      • sex (libido)
      • aggression
psychodynamic perspectives freud13
Psychodynamic Perspectives: Freud
  • Structures of the mind
    • Id
    • Ego
    • Superego
psychodynamic perspectives freud14
Psychodynamic Perspectives:Freud
  • Defense mechanisms
    • Repression
    • Displacement (sublimation)
    • Reaction formation
    • Projection
    • Rationalization
    • Conversion
psychodynamic perspectives freud15
Psychodynamic Perspectives:Freud
  • Psychosexual Theory of Personality Development
    • Oral stage (0-1 years)
    • Anal stage (2-3 years)
    • Phallic stage (3-5 years)
    • Latency period (5-12 years)
    • Genital stage (12 years through adulthood)
humanistic perspectives
Humanistic Perspectives
  • Maslow and Self-Actualization
humanistic perspective cont
Humanistic Perspective, cont.
  • Rogers and Conditions of Worth
ad