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Infectious Disease. Linda Cameron Current Issues Fall 2007. What are infectious diseases?. According to Merriam-Webster medical online dictionary: “a disease caused by the entrance into the body of organisms (as bacteria, protozoans, fungi, or viruses) which grow and multiply there”.

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infectious disease

Infectious Disease

Linda Cameron

Current Issues

Fall 2007

what are infectious diseases
What are infectious diseases?

According to Merriam-Webster medical online dictionary:

“a disease caused by the entrance into the body of organisms (as bacteria, protozoans, fungi, or viruses) which grow and multiply there”

transmission
Transmission

Infections can enter the body through four different path ways

  • Airborne- coughing, sneezing (Influenza)
  • Direct contact- touching (Herpes)
  • Blood borne- bleeding (HIV)
  • Water and food borne- contamination (E. coli)
human body
Human Body

Some microorganism reside in the human body in homeostasis

  • These usually do not cause harm
  • Although under certain circumstances some may over react and cause an illness
prevention
Prevention
  • WASH YOUR HANDS- many times a day for approx. 2 min. Some strains of diseases resist the agent in no-soap antibacterial creams
  • IMMUNIZATIONS- although not 100% effective all the time, helps your body fit off diseases if you come in contact with it
  • STAY AWAY FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE SICK- close surrounding with those who even have the smallest cough could cause you or others a cold.
keep the athletes safe
Keep the athletes safe

Not only do we have our own responsibility to stay healthy, we also have the athletes we are with to worry about

  • Isolate the athlete while they are sick- especially in huddles
  • Make them their own water bottle- don’t let them share with the team
  • Clean EVERY surface they come in contact with- right after they use it, whether it be rehab equipment or a table
nosocomial infections
Nosocomial Infections

According to General Medical Conditions in the Athlete:

“is one that is acquired in the athletic training room or medical facility and that is unrelated to the athlete’s purpose for the visit.”

mononucleosis
Mononucleosis
  • Epstein-Barr virus- herpes virus family
    • Very common, 35-50% of adolescents and young adults end up with the infection
  • Transmitted easily through oropharyngeal contact
  • Signs and Symptoms
    • Fever
    • Sore throat
    • Extreme fatigue
    • swollen lymph glands
    • Sometimes enlarged spleen or liver
  • Symptoms subside but EBV remains dormant in the blood for life
  • Blood tests is the only way to confirm a case of mono
chickenpox and shingles
Chickenpox and Shingles
  • Herpes varicella
    • Usually occurs in childhood
    • 10-20 days of exposure
    • The virus remains dormant in the body and may cause problems later (Shingles)
  • Herpes zoster
    • Reactivation of the varicella disease
    • 90% of unvaccinated, or had the disease once, becomes infected
chickenpox and shingles11
Chickenpox and Shingles
  • Transmission
    • Direct contact; respiratory secretions, direct contact with vesicle fluid
      • Scabs are not contagious
  • Signs and Symptoms
    • Headache
    • Rash/ Lesions
    • Flu symptoms- fever, chills, aches
  • Herpes zoster rash appears within deratomes
chickenpox and shingles12
Chickenpox and Shingles

Shingles

Chickenpox

streptococcal infections
Streptococcal Infections
  • Streptococci are found naturally in the GI tract, throat, respiratory system, and skin
  • Categorized into 5 groups
    • A, B, C, D, G
  • A, B, D most common
    • resistant to Bacitracin
    • Can cause problematic responses
  • Three states
    • Carrier, non-active, acute and delayed non-suppurative complication
group a
Group A
  • Suppurative
    • Invading bacteria that produce necrosis and cause acute inflammation
      • Tonsillitis, strep throat, impetigo, pneumonia, TSS, cellultis
  • Non-suppurative
    • Diseases occur in tissues remote from the original bacterial attack
      • Rheumatic fever
  • Necrotizing fasciitis
    • Flesh-eating bacteria
    • Rare, severe and fatal
group a15
Group A

Strep throat

Impetigo

group a16
Group A

pneumonia

group d
Group D
  • Two types
    • Enterococcal- resides in the intestines
    • Nonenterococcal
  • Naturally found in
    • GI tract
    • Urinary tract
    • Wound infections
staphylococcal infections
Staphylococcal Infections
  • Grapelike clusters that cause numerous infections in every human body system
  • Patients with compromised immune systems are at greater risk
    • Chronic pulmonary disorders, diabetes mellitus, influenza, surgical incisions
  • Transmission
    • Hand-to-hand contact and airborne
    • Infected or under cooked foods
sexually transmitted disease and infections
Sexually Transmitted Disease and Infections
  • Characterized by:
    • Painful urination
    • Urethral discharge
    • Itching and burning
  • Most can be prevented using a protection barrier
  • Having one STD does not provide immunity
sexually transmitted disease and infections20
Sexually Transmitted Disease and Infections
  • HIV
    • Sexually transmitted
    • Treated with medication
  • Genital warts
    • Caused by HPV; sexually transmitted
    • 60 different strains
    • HPV also causes nongential warts
    • Do not resemble acne or express discharge
sexually transmitted disease and infections21
Sexually Transmitted Disease and Infections
  • Syphilis
    • Symptoms reflect other diseases
    • Preventable and curable
    • Secondary syphilis presents with rashes and lesions
  • Gonorrhea
    • Transmission through sexual contact and health care professionals through broken skin
    • Men and women are both effected, although signs and symptoms differ
sexually transmitted disease and infections22
Sexually Transmitted Disease and Infections
  • Chlamydia
    • Almost ever species of bird and mammal infected with disease
    • Causes disease in humans in the eye, respiratory system and genital tract
  • Herpes Simples
    • Two types
      • Type 1- usually in the form of cold sores
        • 80-90% of US population infected
      • Type 2- usually in the genital area
        • 1 in 5 of US population infected
sexually transmitted disease and infections23
Sexually Transmitted Disease and Infections

Chlamydia in the eye

Herpes Simplex- Type 1

slide24
There are MANY other infectious diseases that as athletic trainers we will come in contact with….

http://www.cdc.gov/DiseasesConditions/

… is a reliable place to start

why and where in athletics
Why and Where in Athletics?
  • Why?
    • We don’t need cases of nosocomial infections
    • Most infections are easily spread
    • If a post-op patient their immune system is already weakened
  • Where?
    • Team huddles
    • Playing equipment
    • Treatment and Taping Tables
    • Sink
    • Water bottles
    • Rehab equipment
    • The air
what do
What do?

“We’re not doctors or specialists….

There is power in

REFERRAL

references
References

Center for Disease Control and Prevention

http://www.cdc.gov

Cuppett, M. and Walsh, K.M. (2005) General Medical Conditions in the Athlete Elsevier Mosby: St. Louis

Google Images

http://www.images.google.com

Merriam-Webster Online Medical Dictionary http://medical.merriam-webster.com/medical

Streator, Steve (2007) Class notes. General Medical Conditions in Athletes. Lock Haven University of PA

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