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Infectious Disease. Linda Cameron Current Issues Fall 2007. What are infectious diseases?. According to Merriam-Webster medical online dictionary: “a disease caused by the entrance into the body of organisms (as bacteria, protozoans, fungi, or viruses) which grow and multiply there”.

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Infectious Disease

Linda Cameron

Current Issues

Fall 2007


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What are infectious diseases?

According to Merriam-Webster medical online dictionary:

“a disease caused by the entrance into the body of organisms (as bacteria, protozoans, fungi, or viruses) which grow and multiply there”


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Transmission

Infections can enter the body through four different path ways

  • Airborne- coughing, sneezing (Influenza)

  • Direct contact- touching (Herpes)

  • Blood borne- bleeding (HIV)

  • Water and food borne- contamination (E. coli)


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Human Body

Some microorganism reside in the human body in homeostasis

  • These usually do not cause harm

  • Although under certain circumstances some may over react and cause an illness


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Prevention

  • WASH YOUR HANDS- many times a day for approx. 2 min. Some strains of diseases resist the agent in no-soap antibacterial creams

  • IMMUNIZATIONS- although not 100% effective all the time, helps your body fit off diseases if you come in contact with it

  • STAY AWAY FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE SICK- close surrounding with those who even have the smallest cough could cause you or others a cold.


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Keep the athletes safe

Not only do we have our own responsibility to stay healthy, we also have the athletes we are with to worry about

  • Isolate the athlete while they are sick- especially in huddles

  • Make them their own water bottle- don’t let them share with the team

  • Clean EVERY surface they come in contact with- right after they use it, whether it be rehab equipment or a table


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Nosocomial Infections

According to General Medical Conditions in the Athlete:

“is one that is acquired in the athletic training room or medical facility and that is unrelated to the athlete’s purpose for the visit.”


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Mononucleosis

  • Epstein-Barr virus- herpes virus family

    • Very common, 35-50% of adolescents and young adults end up with the infection

  • Transmitted easily through oropharyngeal contact

  • Signs and Symptoms

    • Fever

    • Sore throat

    • Extreme fatigue

    • swollen lymph glands

    • Sometimes enlarged spleen or liver

  • Symptoms subside but EBV remains dormant in the blood for life

  • Blood tests is the only way to confirm a case of mono



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Chickenpox and Shingles

  • Herpes varicella

    • Usually occurs in childhood

    • 10-20 days of exposure

    • The virus remains dormant in the body and may cause problems later (Shingles)

  • Herpes zoster

    • Reactivation of the varicella disease

    • 90% of unvaccinated, or had the disease once, becomes infected


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Chickenpox and Shingles

  • Transmission

    • Direct contact; respiratory secretions, direct contact with vesicle fluid

      • Scabs are not contagious

  • Signs and Symptoms

    • Headache

    • Rash/ Lesions

    • Flu symptoms- fever, chills, aches

  • Herpes zoster rash appears within deratomes


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Chickenpox and Shingles

Shingles

Chickenpox


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Streptococcal Infections

  • Streptococci are found naturally in the GI tract, throat, respiratory system, and skin

  • Categorized into 5 groups

    • A, B, C, D, G

  • A, B, D most common

    • resistant to Bacitracin

    • Can cause problematic responses

  • Three states

    • Carrier, non-active, acute and delayed non-suppurative complication


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Group A

  • Suppurative

    • Invading bacteria that produce necrosis and cause acute inflammation

      • Tonsillitis, strep throat, impetigo, pneumonia, TSS, cellultis

  • Non-suppurative

    • Diseases occur in tissues remote from the original bacterial attack

      • Rheumatic fever

  • Necrotizing fasciitis

    • Flesh-eating bacteria

    • Rare, severe and fatal


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Group A

Strep throat

Impetigo


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Group A

pneumonia


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Group D

  • Two types

    • Enterococcal- resides in the intestines

    • Nonenterococcal

  • Naturally found in

    • GI tract

    • Urinary tract

    • Wound infections


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Staphylococcal Infections

  • Grapelike clusters that cause numerous infections in every human body system

  • Patients with compromised immune systems are at greater risk

    • Chronic pulmonary disorders, diabetes mellitus, influenza, surgical incisions

  • Transmission

    • Hand-to-hand contact and airborne

    • Infected or under cooked foods


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Sexually Transmitted Disease and Infections

  • Characterized by:

    • Painful urination

    • Urethral discharge

    • Itching and burning

  • Most can be prevented using a protection barrier

  • Having one STD does not provide immunity


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Sexually Transmitted Disease and Infections

  • HIV

    • Sexually transmitted

    • Treated with medication

  • Genital warts

    • Caused by HPV; sexually transmitted

    • 60 different strains

    • HPV also causes nongential warts

    • Do not resemble acne or express discharge


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Sexually Transmitted Disease and Infections

  • Syphilis

    • Symptoms reflect other diseases

    • Preventable and curable

    • Secondary syphilis presents with rashes and lesions

  • Gonorrhea

    • Transmission through sexual contact and health care professionals through broken skin

    • Men and women are both effected, although signs and symptoms differ


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Sexually Transmitted Disease and Infections

  • Chlamydia

    • Almost ever species of bird and mammal infected with disease

    • Causes disease in humans in the eye, respiratory system and genital tract

  • Herpes Simples

    • Two types

      • Type 1- usually in the form of cold sores

        • 80-90% of US population infected

      • Type 2- usually in the genital area

        • 1 in 5 of US population infected


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Sexually Transmitted Disease and Infections

Chlamydia in the eye

Herpes Simplex- Type 1


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There are MANY other infectious diseases that as athletic trainers we will come in contact with….

http://www.cdc.gov/DiseasesConditions/

… is a reliable place to start


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Why and Where in Athletics? trainers we will come in contact with….

  • Why?

    • We don’t need cases of nosocomial infections

    • Most infections are easily spread

    • If a post-op patient their immune system is already weakened

  • Where?

    • Team huddles

    • Playing equipment

    • Treatment and Taping Tables

    • Sink

    • Water bottles

    • Rehab equipment

    • The air


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What do? trainers we will come in contact with….

“We’re not doctors or specialists….

There is power in

REFERRAL


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References trainers we will come in contact with….

Center for Disease Control and Prevention

http://www.cdc.gov

Cuppett, M. and Walsh, K.M. (2005) General Medical Conditions in the Athlete Elsevier Mosby: St. Louis

Google Images

http://www.images.google.com

Merriam-Webster Online Medical Dictionary http://medical.merriam-webster.com/medical

Streator, Steve (2007) Class notes. General Medical Conditions in Athletes. Lock Haven University of PA


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