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Hydrologic Cycle/Water Balances. Earth’s Water. Covers approximately 75% of the surface Volcanic emissions Only known substance that naturally exists as a gas, liquid, and solid at surface temperatures and pressures. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Library/Water/.

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earth s water
Earth’s Water
  • Covers approximately 75% of the surface
  • Volcanic emissions
  • Only known substance that naturally exists as a gas, liquid, and solid at surface temperatures and pressures

http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Library/Water/

one estimate of global water distribution
One estimate of global water distribution

http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Library/Water/

hydrologic cycle
Hydrologic Cycle
  • Powered by energy from the sun
  • Evaporation 90% of atmospheric water
  • Transpiration 10%
  • Evaporation exceeds precipitation over oceans
  • Precipitation exceeds evaporation over continents
  • All water stored in atmosphere would cover surface to a depth of 2.5 centimeters
  • 1 m average annual precipitation

http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Library/Water/

hydrologic cycle6
Hydrologic Cycle

In the hydrologic cycle, individual water molecules travel between the oceans, water vapor in the atmosphere, water and ice on the land, and underground water. (Image by Hailey King, NASA GSFC.)

http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Library/Water/

u s total surface water and ground water withdrawals 2000
U.S. total, surface-water, and ground-water withdrawals, 2000

http://water.usgs.gov/pubs/circ/

2004/circ1268/htdocs/text-total.html

u s total water withdrawals by category 2000
U.S. total water withdrawals by category, 2000

http://water.usgs.gov/pubs/circ/2004/circ1268/htdocs/text-total.html

trends in population and freshwater withdrawals by source 1950 2000
Trends in population and freshwater withdrawals by source, 1950-2000

http://water.usgs.gov/pubs/circ/2004/circ1268/htdocs/text-total.html

water mass balance
Water (Mass) Balance
  • In – Out = Change in Storage
    • Totally general
    • Usually for a particular time interval
    • Many ways to break up components
    • Different reservoirs can be considered
water mass balance13
Water (Mass) Balance
  • Principal components:
    • Precipitation
    • Evaporation
    • Transpiration
    • Runoff
  • P – E – T – Ro = Change in Storage
  • Units?
ground water mass balance
Ground Water (Mass) Balance
  • Principal components:
    • Recharge
    • Inflow
    • Transpiration
    • Outflow
  • R + Qin – T – Qout = Change in Storage
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