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Hydrologic Cycle/Water Balances PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Hydrologic Cycle/Water Balances. Earth’s Water. Covers approximately 75% of the surface Volcanic emissions Only known substance that naturally exists as a gas, liquid, and solid at surface temperatures and pressures. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Library/Water/.

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Hydrologic Cycle/Water Balances

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Hydrologic Cycle/Water Balances


Earth’s Water

  • Covers approximately 75% of the surface

  • Volcanic emissions

  • Only known substance that naturally exists as a gas, liquid, and solid at surface temperatures and pressures

http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Library/Water/


One estimate of global water distribution

http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Library/Water/


Fresh Water


Hydrologic Cycle

  • Powered by energy from the sun

  • Evaporation 90% of atmospheric water

  • Transpiration 10%

  • Evaporation exceeds precipitation over oceans

  • Precipitation exceeds evaporation over continents

  • All water stored in atmosphere would cover surface to a depth of 2.5 centimeters

  • 1 m average annual precipitation

http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Library/Water/


Hydrologic Cycle

In the hydrologic cycle, individual water molecules travel between the oceans, water vapor in the atmosphere, water and ice on the land, and underground water. (Image by Hailey King, NASA GSFC.)

http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Library/Water/


Florida


Florida


U.S. total, surface-water, and ground-water withdrawals, 2000

http://water.usgs.gov/pubs/circ/

2004/circ1268/htdocs/text-total.html


U.S. total water withdrawals by category, 2000

http://water.usgs.gov/pubs/circ/2004/circ1268/htdocs/text-total.html


Trends in population and freshwater withdrawals by source, 1950-2000

http://water.usgs.gov/pubs/circ/2004/circ1268/htdocs/text-total.html


Water (Mass) Balance

  • In – Out = Change in Storage

    • Totally general

    • Usually for a particular time interval

    • Many ways to break up components

    • Different reservoirs can be considered


Water (Mass) Balance

  • Principal components:

    • Precipitation

    • Evaporation

    • Transpiration

    • Runoff

  • P – E – T – Ro = Change in Storage

  • Units?


Ground Water (Mass) Balance

  • Principal components:

    • Recharge

    • Inflow

    • Transpiration

    • Outflow

  • R + Qin – T – Qout = Change in Storage


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