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GPS BASICS. What is GPS?. Developed by Oklahoma 4-H . GPS. G lobal P ositioning S ystem Network of 24 satellites (with spares) Developed by Department of Defense Operational 24 hours/day Available worldwide Land, sea and air Works in all weather conditions It is FREE!!.

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What is gps l.jpg

What is GPS?

Developed by Oklahoma 4-H


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GPS

  • Global Positioning System

  • Network of 24 satellites (with spares)

  • Developed by Department of Defense

  • Operational 24 hours/day

  • Available worldwide

  • Land, sea and air

  • Works in all weather conditions

  • It is FREE!!



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Navigation Tools of the Past

Sextant Chronometer


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Beginnings

  • TRANSIT developed by Navy in 1960s

  • Used to track nuclear submarines

  • Air Force created own system

  • Used to locate vehicles on land or in air


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NAVSTAR

  • Combined Navy and Air Force systems in 1973

  • NAVigation Satellite Timing And Ranging (NAVSTAR)

  • First used in combat during Operation Desert Storm – 1991

  • Full Operational Capability – April 27, 1995


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GPS System

  • Space Segment – Satellite Constellation

  • Control Segment– Monitoring Stations and Ground Antennas

  • User Segment – Receivers



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Satellite Information

  • Weighs approximately 2,000 lbs

  • Travels 7,000 mph

  • 17 feet across with solar panels extended

  • Last 10 years

  • Orbit 12,500 miles above Earth

  • Circle the Earth twice daily


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In the next lesson we will learn:

  • How GPS works

  • Coordinates – Latitude and Longitude

  • Creating and Finding Waypoints using a GPS receiver



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How it works

  • Satellite circles the Earth and transmits signal

  • Signal contains time it was sent and its location

  • All satellites send their signal at the same time

  • Difference in time to reach receivers is used to determine location


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Trilateration

  • Process of measuring the distance from at least three satellites

  • Three satellites calculate 2D position (Latitude and Longitude)

  • Four or more satellites calculate 3D position (Latitude, Longitude, and Altitude)



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One satellite can locate a receiver’s position somewhere on a sphere

Two satellites can locate a receiver’s position to a circle representing the intersection of two spheres

Three satellites can locate a receiver’s position to one of two points represented by the intersection of three spheres.


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Latitude on a sphere

  • Latitude lines run horizontal

  • Equator is 0°

  • North and South Poles are 90°


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Lines of Latitude on a sphere


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Longitude on a sphere

  • Also known as meridians, run vertical

  • The Prime Meridian in Greenwich, England is 0°

  • Lines range from 0° to 180°

  • International Date Line

    is 180°


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Now for the on a sphere

fun part!


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Click Stick on a sphere

Page Button

Zoom In button

Power Button

Zoom Out button

Find button


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Satellite Page on a sphere

Map Page

Navigation Page


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Trip Page on a sphere

Main Menu



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Limitations and Accuracy with GPS with a GPS receiver.


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Accuracy Problems with a GPS receiver.

  • Atmosphere Delay

  • Signal Multipath

  • Receiver Clock Errors

  • Number of Satellites Visible

  • Satellite Geometry and shading

  • Selective Availability – Turned off


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WAAS with a GPS receiver.

  • Developed by the FAA

  • Wide Area Augmentation System

  • Increases the accuracy of GPS receivers

  • Full Operational Capacity on July 10, 2003


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W with a GPS receiver. ide Area Augmentation System

WAAS

Corrected Signal

WAAS Master

Station

WAAS Reference

Station

Receiver


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Differential Correction with a GPS receiver.

  • Developed by the Coast Guard

  • Also known as DGPS

  • Ten meter or less accuracy

  • Full Operational Capacity March 15, 1999


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Differential GPS with a GPS receiver.

Correction Signal

Stationary Receiver


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Now what do we do with this information? with a GPS receiver.

The next section discusses the uses of GPS


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Uses of GPS with a GPS receiver.


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Uses of GPS with a GPS receiver.

Locating

Tracking

Navigating

Mapping

Timing


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Using GPS with a GPS receiver.

  • What are uses you can think of?

    Boating Fishing

    Hunting Camping

    Hiking Biking

    Rafting


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Using GPS continued with a GPS receiver.

  • Scouting from land or air, Horseback riding, Hot air ballooning, Aviation, Snowmobiling, Skiing, Search and Rescue, Four wheeling, Emergency Vehicle Tracking, Highway Driving

  • Geocaching, Surveying, Military, Precision Agriculture


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Using GPS continued with a GPS receiver.

  • Survey disaster areas, Map movement of environmental disasters (Oil spills, wild fires, floods, etc)

  • Mapping fallout shelters, sidewalks, streets, trees, trails, etc.

  • Measuring the growth or decline of mountains


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What can you do with a GPS receiver.

with GPS?


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GPS/GIS and 4-H with a GPS receiver.

  • Potential Projects

    • Youth Favorite Places

      • www.youthfavoriteplaces.org

    • Geocaching

      • www.geocaching.com

    • National GPS / GIS Integration Team

      • http://www.4-h.org/

    • The National Map Corps

      • http://nationalmap.gov/TheNationalMapCorps/


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GPS/GIS and 4-H with a GPS receiver.

  • Community Atlas

    • ESRI Grants

    • http://www.esri.com/industries/k-12/atlas/index.html

    • http://gis.esri.com/industries/k-12/commatlas/browse.cfm

  • Environmental Impact Team

    • Waterwell Mapping

  • The Globe Project

    • www.globe.gov


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GPS/GIS and 4-H with a GPS receiver.

  • Oklahoma Project Ideas

    • Danger Signs

    • Historic Downtown Areas

    • Illegal Dump locations

    • Health and Wellness benefits

    • Storm Shelters

    • Nature Trails and/or Vegetation


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