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Further Development and Application of the CMAQ Ozone and Particle Precursor Tagging Methodologies (OPTM & PPTM). 7 th Annual CMAS Conference Chapel Hill, NC 6-8 October 2008 Presented by Sharon Douglas ICF International, San Rafael, CA. Co-Authors:. Tom Myers Yihua Wei Jay Haney

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Further Development and Application of the CMAQ Ozone and Particle Precursor Tagging Methodologies (OPTM & PPTM)

7th Annual CMAS Conference

Chapel Hill, NC

6-8 October 2008

Presented by Sharon Douglas

ICF International, San Rafael, CA


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Co-Authors: Particle Precursor Tagging Methodologies (OPTM & PPTM)

  • Tom Myers

  • Yihua Wei

  • Jay Haney

  • Tom Braverman,

ICF

EPA OAQPS


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Presentation Outline Particle Precursor Tagging Methodologies (OPTM & PPTM)

  • Overview of CMAQ/OPTM & PPTM source attribution methods

  • Application of CMAQ/OPTM & CMAQ/PPTM to support ozone & PM2.5 designations (example for Milwaukee)

  • Application of CMAQ/PPTM to characterize CAAA-related reductions in PM2.5 for cost/benefit analysis

  • Next steps


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OPTM & PPTM: General Concepts Particle Precursor Tagging Methodologies (OPTM & PPTM)

  • Emissions (or IC/BC) species are tagged in the input files and continuously tracked throughout the simulation

  • Tags can be applied to source regions, source categories, individual sources, and/or IC/BCs

  • Tagged species have the same properties and are subjected to the same processes (e.g., advection, chemical transformation, deposition) as the actual species


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OPTM & PPTM: General Concepts Particle Precursor Tagging Methodologies (OPTM & PPTM)

  • OPTM species include ozone, NOx & VOC

  • PPTM species include PM-related S, N, SOA, POC, EC & other inorganic particulates*

  • Base simulation results not affected by tagging

  • OPTM & PPTM quantify the contribution of tagged sources to simulated species concentrations & deposition

*PPTM has also been implemented for mercury


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Implementation of OPTM for CMAQ (Overview(1)) Particle Precursor Tagging Methodologies (OPTM & PPTM)

  • Total emissions of both NOx and VOC from the desired sources or source categories are tagged (e.g., NOx_t1, NOx_t2, VOC_t1, VOC_t2)

  • Oxidant tracers (OXN_t1, OXV_t1, OXN_t2, OXV_t2) correspond to the oxidant produced from NOx & VOC for each tagged category


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Implementation of OPTM for CMAQ (Overview(2)) Particle Precursor Tagging Methodologies (OPTM & PPTM)

  • Advection/Diffusion:

    • Use standard CMAQ algorithms

  • Gas Phase Chemistry:

    • Chemistry step called as usual

    • Changes in NOx, VOC & oxidant (ΔVOC, ΔNOX & ΔOX) are calculated and apportioned to tags

  • Deposition:

    • Calculated for the tags based on fractional change in total NOx, VOC & oxidant due to deposition


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Implementation of PPTM for CMAQ (Overview) Particle Precursor Tagging Methodologies (OPTM & PPTM)

  • Within CMAQ, tagging is accomplished by adding duplicate species (e.g., ANO3_t1, ANO3_t2)

  • More than 50 (gas & aerosol phase) species per tag required to track total PM2.5 (e.g., for nitrogen: ANH4I, ANH4J, ANO3I, ANO3J, NO, NO2, NO3, N2O5 …)

  • Key considerations/assumptions:

    • Linear processes simulated directly

    • Potentially non-linear processes calculated for total species and apportioned to tags

  • PPTM can also be used to estimate contributions to N and other forms of deposition


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Application of CMAQ/OPTM & PPTM for the Milwaukee Area Particle Precursor Tagging Methodologies (OPTM & PPTM)

  • Objective: To identify the source regions that potentially contribute to high ozone and high PM2.5 concentrations in the Milwaukee, WI area

  • Specs:

    • Regional-scale modeling domain

    • 2002 base year; limited simulation periods (1 month for ozone; 4 months for PM2.5)

    • 13 tagged source regions (county level)



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Application of CMAQ/OPTM & PPTM for the Milwaukee Area: Tags Domain

T1: Milwaukee Co., WI

T2: Washington Co., WI

T3: Ozaukee Co., WI

T4: Waukesha Co., WI

T5: Racine Co., WI

T6: Sheboygan & Fond du Lac Co., WI

T7: Dodge, Jefferson & Walworth Co., WI

T8: Kenosha Co., WI

T9: Cook Co., IL

T10: Lake, McHenry, Kane, Dupage Co.,IL

T11: Will Co., IL & Lake & Porter Co., IN

T12: Remainder of 12-km grid

T13: IC/BCs


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CMAQ/OPTM Results for the Milwaukee Area: NOx Domain

Average Contribution to Maximum 8-Hour Ozone

Tag 1: Milwaukee Co.

Tag 9: Cook Co.

Tag 10: 4 Other IL Co.


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CMAQ/OPTM Results for the Milwaukee Area: VOC Domain

Average Contribution to Maximum 8-Hour Ozone

Tag 1: Milwaukee Co.

Tag 9: Cook Co.

Tag 10: 4 Other IL Co.


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CMAQ/OPTM Results for a Monitoring Site: NOx & VOC Domain

Average Contribution to Maximum 8-Hour Ozone

IC/BCs

Milwaukee Co.

12-km grid

Milwaukee Bayside



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CMAQ/PPTM Results for a Monitoring Site VOC

12-km grid

IC/BCs

Milwaukee Co.

Milwaukee Virginia Fire Station


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CMAQ/PPTM Results for a Monitoring Site VOC

12-km grid

IC/BCs

Waukesha Co.

Milwaukee Co.

Waukesha



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Summary for Milwaukee VOC

  • OPTM & PPTM can be used to quantify

    • the contribution of emissions (by species) from specified source regions to CMAQ-derived concentrations

    • the potential for sources/source regions to contribute to nonattainment in a given area

  • Contributions vary by location and are different for the different species (NOx, VOC and PM species)

  • Ozone & PM2.5 nonattainment issues in the Milwaukee area are the combined result of local emissions as well as intra- & inter-state transport


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§ VOC812 Cost/Benefit Analysis: PM2.5 Modeling Component


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Application of CMAQ/PPTM to Support the VOC§812 Cost/Benefit Analysis

  • Objectives:

    • Quality assurance

    • To quantify and compare the source category contributions to PM2.5 both with and without the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA)

  • Specs:

    • National-scale modeling domain

    • Annual simulation period; two scenarios (2010 without CAAA and 2010 with CAAA)

    • 7 tagged source categories


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Application of CMAQ/PPTM for the VOC§812 Modeling Analysis: Domains

36-km resolution for PM2.5


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Application of CMAQ/PPTM for the VOC§812 Modeling Analysis: Tags

  • T1: EGU sources (U.S.)

  • T2: Non-EGU point sources (U.S.)

  • T3: On-road mobile sources (U.S.)

  • T4: Non-road mobile sources (U.S.)

  • T5: Area (non-point, non-mobile) sources (U.S.)

  • T6: Initial and boundary conditions (IC/BCs)

  • T7: All other sources (natural emissions, offshore sources, and non-U.S. sources)


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CMAQ/PPTM Results: Contribution from EGU Sources (Tag 1) VOC

Annual Average PM2.5

2010 without CAAA

2010 with CAAA


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CMAQ/PPTM Results: Contribution from Non-EGU Point Sources (Tag 2)

Annual Average PM2.5

2010 without CAAA

2010 with CAAA


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CMAQ/PPTM Results: Contribution from On-Road Sources (Tag 3) (Tag 2)

Annual Average PM2.5

2010 without CAAA

2010 with CAAA



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Summary of PPTM Results for the (Tag 2)§812 Modeling Analysis

  • PPTM used as a probing tool to attribute the overall reductions in PM2.5 (due to the CAAA measures) to specific source categories

  • Total simulated PM2.5 concentration is lower under the CAAA scenario, primarily due to reductions in area- & point-source (EGU & non-EGU) emissions (relative importance varies by region and by location)

  • Health benefits can be similarly attributed to source categories, sources, or specific measures


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Next Steps (Tag 2)

  • Incorporate OPTM & PPTM (for ozone and PM2.5) into CMAQv4.7

  • Incorporate PPTM (for mercury and 10 additional toxic pollutants) into CMAQv4.7

  • Distribute OPTM & PPTM codes through CMAS


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