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Funkční bezpečnost elektrických přístrojů souvisejících s bezpečností PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Funkční bezpečnost elektrických přístrojů souvisejících s bezpečností


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Část celkové bezpečnosti týkající se EUC a systému řízení EUC závislá na správném fungování E/E/EP systémů souvisejících s bezpečností, systémech souvisejících s bezpečností založených na jiných technických principech a vnějších prostředcích pro snížení rizika

Funkční bezpečnost

ČSN EN 61508-4


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Process.

Mechanical Safety Action (if available)

Plant Shut-down

Wild Process

parameter

If Operator takes action

High Alarm level

DCS

Functionality

High Control level

Normal behavior

Certain Process

parameter value

Low Control level

Time


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Safety System.

Mechanical Safety Action (if available)

Plant Shut-down

Safety Instrumented

System Functionality

ESD controlled

Trip level

Wild Process

parameter

If Operator takes action

High Alarm level

DCS

Functionality

High Control level

Normal behavior

Certain Process

parameter value

Low Control level

Time


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Have You Been Asked This?

‘Regulator’

“How can you demonstrate that you are safe?”


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How do you demonstrate that your operations are ‘safe’?

How do you demonstrate that your equipment is ‘safe’?

How do you demonstrate that your safety and protective systems protect against your hazards?

You can answer these questions by demonstrating compliance with Industry Safety StandardsIEC61508 - Functional safety of

electrical/electronic/programmable electronic

safety-related systems

Safety Issues for End User / Operators


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An international standard relating to the Functional Safety of electrical / electronic / programmable electronic safety related systems

Mainly concerned with E/E/PE safety-related systems whose failure could have an impact on the safety of persons and/or the environment

Could also be used to specify any E/E/PE system used for the protection of equipment or product

It is an industry best practice standard to enable you to reduce the risk of a hazardous event to a tolerable level

What is IEC61508?


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EElectrical

electro-mechanical / relays / interlocks

EElectronic

solid state electronics

PESProgrammable Electronic Systems

Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC’s);

Microprocessor based systems

Distributed Control Systems

Other computer based devices

(“smart” sensors / transmitters / actuators)

Technologies Concerned


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Generic Standard

Guidance on the use of E/E/PES

Comprehensive approach involving concepts of Safety Lifecycle and includes all elements of the protective system

Risk-based approach leading to determination of Safety Integrity Levels (S.I.Ls)

Considers the entire Safety Critical Loop

Features


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IEC61513 :

Nuclear Sector

Medical Sector

IEC62061 :

Machinery Sector

IEC61511 :

Process Sector

Generic and Application Sector Standards

IEC61508


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IEC61511

Functional Safety

Safety instrumented systems

for the

Process industry sector


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“FUNCTIONAL SAFETY: SAFETY INSTRUMENTED SYSTEMS FOR THE PROCESS INDUSTRY SECTOR”

IEC 61511


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Industries

  • Applies to a wide variety of industries across the process sector

  • Including:

    • Chemicals

    • Oil refining

    • Oil and gas production

    • Pulp and paper

    • Non-nuclear power generation

    • Pharmaceuticals / Fine Chemicals


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Process (chemicals, oil & gas, paper, non-nuclear power generation)

End-to-end safety instrumented system (SIS) - h/w, s/w, mgt. and human factors

Full safety lifecycle - specification, design, integration, operation, maintenance

Intended for integrators / users

not for equipment designers / vendors

Scope


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Structure

  • IEC 61511 – Structure

    • Part 1 – “Framework, definitions, system,

      hardware and software requirements”.

    • Part 2 – “Guidelines for the application of IEC 61511-1”.

    • Part 3 – “Guidance for the determination of safety integrity levels”.

Normative

Informative


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IEC 61511

TITLE - “Functional Safety – Safety Instrumented Systems for the Process Industry sector”

  • This international Standard gives requirements for the specification, design, installation, operation and maintenance of a safety instrumented system, so that it can be confidently entrusted to place and/or maintain the process in a safe state.

  • This standard has been developed as a process sector implementation of IEC 61508.


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Relationship IEC 61511 & IEC 61508


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Relationship IEC 61511 & IEC 61508


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Whole safety lifecycle

Concept, Hazard & Risk Analysis and Design

through operation & maintenance to eventual decommissioning

Safety requirements specification

Safety integrity levels (SIL 1 to 4)

End-to-end system

(Sensor via Logic to Actuator)

Hardware reliability analysis (PFD)

Management of functional safety

Architectural constraints (fault tolerance)

Similarities (IEC 61508 - IEC 61511)


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Terminology

Process (EUC)

Basic Process Control System (EUC Control system)

Safety Instrumented System (E/E/PE S-R-S)

Safety Instrumented Function (Safety function)

Presentation

less rigorous than IEC 61508

more guidance (especially in Parts 2 & 3)

Key Differences IEC 61511 (IEC 61508)


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1

Concept

2

Overall Scope Definition

3

Hazard Risk Analysis

4

Overall Safety Requirements

5

Safety Requirements Allocation

External Risk

Reduction

Facilities

Safety Related

Systems:

Other

Technology

11

9

Safety Related

Systems:

E / E / PES

10

Overall Planning

6

Overall

Operation &

Maintenance

Planning

7

Overall

Validation

Planning

8

Overall

Installation &

Commissioning

Planning

Realisation

Realisation

Realisation

Overall Installation

& Commissioning

12

Back to appropriate

Overall Safety Lifecycle

Phase

13

Overall Safety Validation

15

Overall Modification & Retrofit

14

Overall Operation & Maintenance

16

Decommissioning

Overall Safety Lifecycle in IEC 61508


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IEC 61508 - ownership of phases

PRE-DESIGN

(Phases 1 to 5)

DESIGN AND INSTALLATION

(Phases 6 to 13)

OPERATION

(Phases 14 to 16)

End user / operator

Engineering Contractors

/ Equipment

Supplier

End user / operator


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1 : Concept

2 : Overall Scope Definition

3 : Hazard Risk Analysis

4 : Overall Safety Requirements

5 : Safety Requirements Allocation

Can you demonstrate that you are using adequate and correct methods of hazard protection?

Pre-Design : Phases 1 - 5

Can you demonstrate that you have identified all your hazards?


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Overall Planning

6 : Overall Operations and Maintenance Planning

7: Overall Validation Planning

8: Overall Installation & Commissioning Planning

9 : Safety Related Systems : E/E/PES

12 : Overall Installation & Commissioning

13 : Overall Safety Validation

10 : Safety Related Systems : Other Technology

11 : External Risk Reduction Facilities

Design & Implementation : Phases 6 - 13

Can you demonstrate that you pass the necessary information into these activities?

How do you ensure competencies for all these activities?

Can you demonstrate that all necessary information has been passed to you from these activities?


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14 : Overall Operations and Maintenance

15 : Overall Modification and Retrofit

16 : Decommissioning

Operation : Phases 14 - 16

Can you demonstrate that you maintain / test / analyse your protective systems correctly?

Can you demonstrate that you are in control of your modification process?


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Supply Chain

Requirement

Specification

Commissioning

and Use

End User

IEC 61511

System Designer –

Integrator

Sub-system

Designer

IEC 61508

Component

Manufacturer


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Risk


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The probable rate of occurrence of a hazard causing harm

AND

the degree of severity of the harm

Qualitatively - Words

Quantitatively - Figures

What is Risk?


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Levels of Risk and ALARP

(As Low As Reasonably Practicable)

Risk cannot be justified

except in extraordinary

circumstances

Unacceptable region

Tolerable only if risk reduction

is impracticable or if its cost is

grossly disproportionate to the

improvement gained

TheALARPor Tolerability region

As the risk is reduced the less, proportionately, it is necessary to spend to reduce it further. The concept of diminishing proportion is shown by the triangle.

(Risk is undertaken only

if a benefit is desired)

Necessary to maintain

assurance that risk

remains at this level

Broadly acceptable region

(No need for detailed working

to demonstrate ALARP)

Negligible risk


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Risk to meet Level of Safety

Actual risk

remaining

Plant Under Control risk

Necessary minimum risk reduction

Actual risk reduction

Partial risk covered

by E/E/PES

protective systems

Partial risk covered

by Other Technology

safety-related systems

Partial risk covered

by External Risk

Reduction Facilities

Risk reduction achieved by all protective systems & External Risk Reduction Facilities

Risk reduction: General concepts

Increasing

risk


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Extent of Safety Related System

Equipment(plant) Under

Control (EUC)

PE

SRS

SENSOR

PROGRAMMABLE ELECTRONICS

ACTUATOR


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Any system that implements safety functions necessary to achieve a safe state for the “Equipment Under Control”, or to maintain it in a safe state.

What is a Safety Related System (SRS) ?

Examples


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A typical Methodology for Hazard Identification and Risk Analysis

(by the end user)

Hazard studies and HAZOPs

Evaluate possible consequences

Establish tolerable frequencies vs ALARP

Build event chain

Estimate demand rates

Define protection required

Specify required SIL

Hazard Identification and Risk Analysis


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A = Random HardwareFailures

OR

B = Systematic Failures

specification;

systematic hardware;

software;

maintenance;

all failures that are not random

“ Failure categories” in IEC 61508

A

B


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Safety Integrity Level SIL


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Basic

Design

Unacceptable

SIL 4

Increasing Severity

SIL 3

SIL 2

SIL 1

No

Protection

Increasing Likelihood

Risk and Determination of Safety Integrity Levels


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Risk Reduction Requirements


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SIL 1

SIL 2

SIL 3

SIL 4

Reliability, Failure Rate and Availability at each level


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Protective System Technology

Standard components, single channel or twin non-diverse channels

SIL 1

Standard components, 1 out of 2 or 2 out of 3, possible need for some diversity. Allowance for common-cause failures needed

SIL 2

Multiple channel with diversity on sensing and actuation. Common-cause failures a major consideration. Should rarely be required in Process Industry

SIL 3

Specialist design. Should never be required in the Process Industry

SIL 4


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Determined to achieve the correct SIL level...


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Various methods available:

Qualitative risk graph

Calibrated risk graph (methodology only – not definitive)

Layer Of Protection Analysis (LOPA)

Hazardous event severity Matrix

Quantified Risk Analysis (QRA)

Which one to use? Develop your own?

SIL assessment


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Calculation of PFDAVG

35% of PFD

15% of PFD

50% of PFD

Avg SE

Avg FE

Avg LS

Distribution of the Failure Measures

35 %Sensors + 15 %Logic solver + 50 %Final elements


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PFD-figures for a HIMA system, example

35 % 15% 50%


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probability of theunwanted occurrence

consequenceriskparameter

frequency& exposuretime

possibilityof avoidinghazardousevents

relativelyhigh

slight

very slight

minor injuryno influenceto the environment

possible

rare

notpossible

dead of 1 person

periodic influenceto the environment

possible

frequent

notpossible

dead toseveral people

rare

permanent influenceto the environment

frequent

disaster

requirement classes

RC or AK

Safety IntegrityLevels (SIL)IEC 61508

Risk Graph acc. DIN V VDE 19250

RC/AK according DIN V VDE 19250SIL according IEC 61508


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Concept of layers of protection acc. IEC 61511

LOPA


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Hazardous event severity Matrix


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Část celkové bezpečnosti týkající se EUC a systému řízení EUC závislá na správném fungování E/E/EP systémů souvisejících s bezpečností, systémech souvisejících s bezpečností založených na jiných technických principech a vnějších prostředcích pro snížení rizika

Funkční bezpečnost


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