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Feeding Frenzy Report. Check spelling!!!!!!!!!!!! 3 rd person Remember to include your sources, for definitions, ideas, etc. Introduction: Background: competition, predation, resource partitioning, define terms used Rationale for doing the study: Why is this important, purpose

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Feeding frenzy report l.jpg
Feeding Frenzy Report

  • Check spelling!!!!!!!!!!!!

  • 3rd person

  • Remember to include your sources, for definitions, ideas, etc.

  • Introduction:

    • Background: competition, predation, resource partitioning, define terms used

    • Rationale for doing the study: Why is this important, purpose

    • Guide reader to the hypothesis: Why do you expect to find what you do

    • Explain what the tools represent, feeding types, whether they are advanced or not

    • Hypotheses:

      • Slotted spoon would do the best

      • Trial 1 would have the most survivors, would do the best, because no resource limitation, no predation

  • Methods: how

    • Remember, we only did 2 trials, do not simply copy the handout verbatim

    • Include point scale for survival, food points (big vs. small), times (5 min), utensils

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Feeding Frenzy Cont.

  • Results:

    • Give averages for the tables

    • Make 2 graphs

      • Stacked bar chart of % survivors and % deaths

      • Bar chart of 4 different tools used and average points per tool

    • Give actual values for trends mentioned

    • You need to set the stage for your discussion

      • i.e., state which tool had the highest points, which the lowest, which trial had the most survivors.

    • Figure legend below figure, table title above

Figure legend example figure map or chart of data with x and y coordinates l.jpg
Figure legend exampleFigure=map or chart of data with x and y coordinates

Figure legend

Refer to Figure in text

Table title example table list of numbers l.jpg
Table title example: Table=list of numbers

Discussion l.jpg

  • Revisit hypotheses-how did we do

  • Answer the questions how and why

  • No new data should be presented here but you can refer back to figures in the results section

Conclusions improvements only l.jpg
Conclusions- improvements only

  • What about the experiment would you change

  • Write in 3rd person

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How much of the ocean has been explored?

  • World’s ocean floor = 2 moons plus 2 mars sized planets

  • 80 % of life on earth found under the ocean surface

  • Oceans contain 99% of the living space on the planet.

  • Less than 10% of that space has been explored by humans.

  • Deep Sea = 85% of the area and 90% of the volume

  • Poorly mapped

  • 5 % mapped as precisely as moon’s surface

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  • Deep Sea

    • Region below epipelagic zone

      • Major portion of global biosphere

    • Life strongly influenced by environmental conditions

    • Conditions

      • Temperature

        • Cold – Typically -1 to 4 oC

      • Pressure

        • Increases by 1 atmosphere (14.7 psi) every 10 m

        • Average depth of oceans – 3800 m = 5600 psi

        • Affects biological molecules – Membranes, enzymes

      • Light

        • Decreases with depth

        • Sunlight present in mesopelagic zone; absent below 1000 m

        • Affects development of eyes

      • Food

        • Scarce

        • Unpredictable in space and time

      • Oxygen

        • Low in some areas but generally not limiting

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Deepest depth discovered

  • Marinas Trench: 36161 ft = 6.8 miles

    • Deeper that the highest mountain peak of Mount Everest (29,035 ft)

  • Explored by John Walsh and Jacques Piccard, 1960 (35,800 ft)

  • Used the bathyscape called Trieste

  • 3 inch port cracked under pressure, but they survived

  • Pressure here is more than 11,318 tons/sq m= one person trying to support 50 jumbo jets.

  • Only revisited by ROV since

  • More people have landed on the moon than have been to deepest inner space

Deep sea l.jpg
Deep Sea

Mesopelagic (Midwater)

  • Feeding

    • Availability of food declines rapidly with depth

      • Only 20% of surface primary production reaches mesopelagic zone

      • More mesopelagic organisms beneath productive waters vs. areas with low primary production

    • Small body size (fishes)

    • Large mouth with hinged, extendable jaws (fishes)

    • Needle-like teeth (fishes)

    • Broad diet

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  • Deep Sea

    Mesopelagic (Midwater)-cont.

    • Diel vertical migration (DVM)

      • Some species migrate vertically on a diel basis

        • Usually at depth during day; near surface at night

        • Reverse migration also occurs

      • Response to changes in light intensity

      • Possible reasons for DVM

        • Food more abundant in surface waters

        • Visual predators less abundant in deep water

        • Colder deep water facilitates more efficient use of food

      • Consequences

        • Biological pump – Transport of organic matter from surface to deep water

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Deep Sea non-migrators

Mesopelagic (Midwater)-cont.

  • Vision

    • Large, sensitive eyes

    • Some squids have one large eye, one small eye

      • Large eye directed upward

    • Some fishes have tubular eyes

      • Enhance light gathering power in one direction

      • Reduced visual acuity in other directions

    • Sensitivity to narrow range of wavelengths (blue-green)

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  • Deep Sea non-migrators

    Mesopelagic (Midwater)-cont.

    • Coloration/Body Shape

      • Body often laterally compressed

        • Reduces size of silhouette when viewed from below

      • Colors

        • Transparent – Difficult to see

        • Silver – Reflects incident light

        • Black – Deeper in mesopelagic

        • Red – Appears gray/black

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  • Deep Sea non-migrators

    Mesopelagic (Midwater)-cont.

    • Bioluminescence-same light as from fireflies

      • Counterillumination – Breaks up silhouette

      • Species recognition – photophore locations differ by sex

      • Predator avoidance – Bioluminescent ink, etc.

      • Attract prey – Glowing lure

      • Detect prey – Subocular red photophore

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  • Deep Sea non-migrators


    • Coloration/Body Shape

      • Fishes - Black or beige

      • Crustaceans - Red

      • Bioluminescence common

        • Attracting prey

        • Intraspecific communication

        • Not used for counterillumination (Why not?)

      • Eyes typically very small (exceptions exist)

      • Watery/flabby muscle (no sprinters down here)

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Fig. 16.21 non-migrators

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  • Deep Sea non-migrators

    • Bathyal/Abyssal/Hadal

      • Food availability

        • Only 5% of primary production reaches bathyal zone

        • Vertical migration very uncommon

        • Animals usually small (exceptions exist)

        • Animals mostly adapted for efficient energy usage

          • Sluggish and sedentary behavior

          • Flabby, watery muscles

          • Weak, poorly calcified skeletons

          • No scales

          • Large mouths

          • Flexible stomachs

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Fig. 16.23 non-migrators

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Deep Sea- non-migratorsBenthos

Food availability

  • Food accumulates at deep sea floor

    • More available than in water column

    • Still unpredictable in space and time

    • Seasonally variable (Why?)

  • Suspension feeders less common than deposit feeders in sediments (Why?)

  • Epifauna usually dominated by

    • Ophiuroids-Brittle stars = Phylum?

    • Holothuroids

    • Echinoids

  • Infauna usually dominated by

    • Nematodes

    • Polychaetes

    • Crustaceans

    • Bivalves

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  • Deep Sea non-migrators


    • Fishes

      • Roving/Cruising predators

        • May have large eyes

        • Well developed muscles

        • Active swimmers

        • May travel thousands of km

      • Sit and wait predators

        • Usually have small eyes

        • Muscles contain more water than cruisers

        • Poor swimmers

        • Tend to stay in one area

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Fig. 16.27 non-migrators

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Hydrothermal vents non-migrators – like hot springs at Yellowstone

  • 1970’s: geologists predicted their existence at mid-ocean spreading ridges

  • 1977: ecological communities discovered, 2.5 km (1.55 miles)

  • Chemosynthesis: Base of food chain is bacteria, use hydrogen sulfide as energy, instead of sunlight

  • 90% of all volcanic activity occurs in the oceans.

  • Vents occur where new crust is formed, spreading ridges

  • Water percolates through cracks, heated by magma, explosively rises through cracks

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Pulsed organic food falls-dead whales non-migrators

  • Initial colonists

    • Mobile scavengers

    • Skeletonize whale quickly

  • Secondary successors

    • Sedentary and sessile forms

    • Some with endosymbiotic bacteria-use bone lipid as energy source

Bone devouring Osedax spp.

Vesicomya gigas with endosymbionts.


A. Baco