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1. Digestive Physiology of Farm Animals Dr. Richard Coffey
Introduction to Animal and Food Sciences Agent In-Service
3. Introduction In simple terms, the digestive system is a portal for nutrients to gain access to the circulatory system.
Foodstuffs are broken down to very simple molecules.
Resulting sugars, amino acids, fatty acids, etc. are then transported across the GI tract lining into blood.
The specific foodstuffs animals are able to utilize is dependent on the type of digestive system they possess.
4. Introduction Three (3) basic types of digestive systems:
Monogastric – simple stomach.
Ruminant (cranial fermentor) – multi-compartmented stomach.
Hind gut (caudal) fermentor – simple stomach, but very large and complex large intestine
5. Types of Digestive Systems
6. Basic Functional Anatomy of the Digestive System – Monogastrics –
7. Digestive Tract - Pig
8. Organs of the Digestive System – Monogastrics – Mouth
Mechanical breakdown of foodstuffs by chewing (reduces particle size, increases surface area for action of enzymes).
Saliva added as a lubricant and, in some species, contains amylase to begin starch digestion.
9. Organs of the Digestive System – Monogastrics – Stomach
Enzymatic digestion of proteins begins.
Foodstuffs reduced to liquid form.
Center of metabolic activity in the body.
Major role in digestive process is to provide bile salts to small intestine (needed for digestion and absorption of fats).
10. Organs of the Digestive System – Monogastrics – Pancreas
Provides a potent mixture of digestive enzymes to the small intestine to help in digestion of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins.
3 sections – duodenum, jejunum, ileum
Site of final stages of chemical enzymatic digestion.
Where almost all nutrients are absorbed.
11. Organs of the Digestive System – Monogastrics – Large Intestine
3 sections – cecum, colon, rectum
Site of water absorption from G.I. tract.
Bacterial fermentation occurs (production and absorption of volatile fatty acids).
Somewhat limited in monogastrics
12. Digestive Tract - Poultry
13. Organs of the Digestive System – Monogastrics – Specialized Organs in Poultry
No lips, no teeth, and no chewing.
Out-pocketing of the esophagus that provides storage for consumed food.
Foodstuffs moistened and softened (little if any digestion).
14. Organs of the Digestive System – Monogastrics – Specialized Organs in Poultry (continued)
Glandular stomach where the first significant amount of digestive juices are added.
A muscular organ used to grind and break up food.
May contain grit (small stones) eaten by animal.
15. Organs of the Digestive System – Monogastrics – Specialized Organs in Poultry (continued)
Common chamber into which the digestive, urinary, and reproductive tracts open.
16. Specialized Poultry Organs
17. Digestive Process - Monogastrics
18. Basic Functional Anatomy of the Digestive System – Ruminants –
19. Digestive Tract – Beef Cattle
20. Organs of the Digestive System – Ruminants – Mouth, esophagus, liver, pancreas, gall bladder, small intestine, and large intestine have functions similar to monogastrics.
21. Parts of the Ruminant Stomach Rumen:
Large, anaerobic fermentation vat.
22. Parts of the Ruminant Stomach Rumen (continued):
Protozoa – 100,000 per gram of rumen fluid.
Bacteria/fungi – 100 million per gram of rumen fluid.
Functions of microorganisms.
Digest roughages to make Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA’s), make microbial protein, and make vitamins K and B-complex.
VFA’s absorbed in rumen.
24. Parts of the Ruminant Stomach
25. Parts of the Ruminant Stomach Rumination:
Ruminants are well known for “cud chewing”.
Bolus of previously eaten foodstuff carried back into the mouth by reverse peristalsis.
Fluid in bolus is squeezed out with the tongue and reswallowed.
Bolus is rechewed and reswallowed.
26. Parts of the Ruminant Stomach Eructation (belching):
Fermentation of foodstuffs in the rumen generates enormous quantities of gas.
30-50 liters per hour in adult cattle.
5-7 liters per hour in adult sheep or goats.
Belching is how ruminants get rid of fermentation gases:
Anything that causes a hindrance to belching can be life threatening.
Bloating can result in death from asphyxiation.
27. Parts of the Ruminant Stomach Reticulum:
28. Parts of the Ruminant Stomach
29. Parts of the Ruminant Stomach Omasum:
A heavy, hard organ with a lining that has many folds (leaves).
30. Parts of the Ruminant Stomach Abomasum:
The true, glandular stomach.
Secretes acids and functions very similarly to monogastric stomach.
Unique feature is that it secretes lysozyme.
Enzyme that efficiently breaks down bacterial cell walls.
Needed to break down the large quantities of bacteria that pass from the rumen.
31. Digestive Process - Ruminants
32. Basic Functional Anatomy of the Digestive System – Hind Gut Fermentors –
33. Digestive Tract - Horse
34. Organs of the Digestive System – Hind Gut Fermentors – Mouth, esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, gall bladder, and small intestine have similar functions as compared to monogastrics.
Major difference between monogastrics and hind gut fermentors is the large intestine
Large intestine is exceptionally large and complex compared to monogastrics and ruminants.
35. Organs of the Digestive System – Hind Gut Fermentors – The large intestine of hind gut fermentors is analogous to the rumen in ruminants.
Large, anaerobic fermentation vat.
Microbes digest structural carbohydrates (cellulose, hemicellulose) and soluble carbohydrates that escape digestion in small intestine to VFA’s.
VFA’s absorbed from large intestine and utilized by the animal.
Microbial protein produced in large intestine is wasted (only very limited absorption from large intestine).
36. Digestive Process – Hind Gut Fermentors
38. Summary There are three (3) basic types of digestive systems in farm animal species.
Ruminant (cranial fermentor)
Hind gut (caudal fermentor)
The type of digestive system influences the dietary foodstuffs the animal can effectively utilize.
39. Digestive System Comparisons
40. Digestive Tract Capacities
41. THE END Any questions?