Digestive Physiology of Farm Animals

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Digestive Physiology of Farm Animals

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1. Digestive Physiology of Farm Animals Dr. Richard Coffey Introduction to Animal and Food Sciences Agent In-Service

3. Introduction In simple terms, the digestive system is a portal for nutrients to gain access to the circulatory system. Foodstuffs are broken down to very simple molecules. Resulting sugars, amino acids, fatty acids, etc. are then transported across the GI tract lining into blood. The specific foodstuffs animals are able to utilize is dependent on the type of digestive system they possess.

4. Introduction Three (3) basic types of digestive systems: Monogastric simple stomach. Ruminant (cranial fermentor) multi-compartmented stomach. Hind gut (caudal) fermentor simple stomach, but very large and complex large intestine

5. Types of Digestive Systems

6. Basic Functional Anatomy of the Digestive System Monogastrics

7. Digestive Tract - Pig

8. Organs of the Digestive System Monogastrics Mouth Mechanical breakdown of foodstuffs by chewing (reduces particle size, increases surface area for action of enzymes). Saliva added as a lubricant and, in some species, contains amylase to begin starch digestion.

9. Organs of the Digestive System Monogastrics Stomach Enzymatic digestion of proteins begins. Foodstuffs reduced to liquid form. Liver Center of metabolic activity in the body. Major role in digestive process is to provide bile salts to small intestine (needed for digestion and absorption of fats).

10. Organs of the Digestive System Monogastrics Pancreas Provides a potent mixture of digestive enzymes to the small intestine to help in digestion of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins. Small Intestine 3 sections duodenum, jejunum, ileum Site of final stages of chemical enzymatic digestion. Where almost all nutrients are absorbed.

11. Organs of the Digestive System Monogastrics Large Intestine 3 sections cecum, colon, rectum Site of water absorption from G.I. tract. Bacterial fermentation occurs (production and absorption of volatile fatty acids). Somewhat limited in monogastrics Feces formed.

12. Digestive Tract - Poultry

13. Organs of the Digestive System Monogastrics Specialized Organs in Poultry Beak No lips, no teeth, and no chewing. Crop Out-pocketing of the esophagus that provides storage for consumed food. Foodstuffs moistened and softened (little if any digestion).

14. Organs of the Digestive System Monogastrics Specialized Organs in Poultry (continued) Proventriculus Glandular stomach where the first significant amount of digestive juices are added. Gizzard A muscular organ used to grind and break up food. May contain grit (small stones) eaten by animal.

15. Organs of the Digestive System Monogastrics Specialized Organs in Poultry (continued) Cloaca Common chamber into which the digestive, urinary, and reproductive tracts open.

16. Specialized Poultry Organs

17. Digestive Process - Monogastrics

18. Basic Functional Anatomy of the Digestive System Ruminants

19. Digestive Tract Beef Cattle

20. Organs of the Digestive System Ruminants Mouth, esophagus, liver, pancreas, gall bladder, small intestine, and large intestine have functions similar to monogastrics.

21. Parts of the Ruminant Stomach Rumen: Large, anaerobic fermentation vat.

22. Parts of the Ruminant Stomach Rumen (continued): Houses microorganisms. Protozoa 100,000 per gram of rumen fluid. Bacteria/fungi 100 million per gram of rumen fluid. Functions of microorganisms. Digest roughages to make Volatile Fatty Acids (VFAs), make microbial protein, and make vitamins K and B-complex. VFAs absorbed in rumen.

24. Parts of the Ruminant Stomach

25. Parts of the Ruminant Stomach Rumination: Ruminants are well known for cud chewing. Rumination involves: Bolus of previously eaten foodstuff carried back into the mouth by reverse peristalsis. Fluid in bolus is squeezed out with the tongue and reswallowed. Bolus is rechewed and reswallowed.

26. Parts of the Ruminant Stomach Eructation (belching): Fermentation of foodstuffs in the rumen generates enormous quantities of gas. 30-50 liters per hour in adult cattle. 5-7 liters per hour in adult sheep or goats. Belching is how ruminants get rid of fermentation gases: Anything that causes a hindrance to belching can be life threatening. Bloating can result in death from asphyxiation.

27. Parts of the Ruminant Stomach Reticulum:

28. Parts of the Ruminant Stomach

29. Parts of the Ruminant Stomach Omasum: A heavy, hard organ with a lining that has many folds (leaves).

30. Parts of the Ruminant Stomach Abomasum: The true, glandular stomach. Secretes acids and functions very similarly to monogastric stomach. Unique feature is that it secretes lysozyme. Enzyme that efficiently breaks down bacterial cell walls. Needed to break down the large quantities of bacteria that pass from the rumen.

31. Digestive Process - Ruminants

32. Basic Functional Anatomy of the Digestive System Hind Gut Fermentors

33. Digestive Tract - Horse

34. Organs of the Digestive System Hind Gut Fermentors Mouth, esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, gall bladder, and small intestine have similar functions as compared to monogastrics. Large Intestine Major difference between monogastrics and hind gut fermentors is the large intestine Large intestine is exceptionally large and complex compared to monogastrics and ruminants.

35. Organs of the Digestive System Hind Gut Fermentors The large intestine of hind gut fermentors is analogous to the rumen in ruminants. Large, anaerobic fermentation vat. Microbes digest structural carbohydrates (cellulose, hemicellulose) and soluble carbohydrates that escape digestion in small intestine to VFAs. VFAs absorbed from large intestine and utilized by the animal. Microbial protein produced in large intestine is wasted (only very limited absorption from large intestine).

36. Digestive Process Hind Gut Fermentors

37. Summary

38. Summary There are three (3) basic types of digestive systems in farm animal species. Monogastric Ruminant (cranial fermentor) Hind gut (caudal fermentor) The type of digestive system influences the dietary foodstuffs the animal can effectively utilize.

39. Digestive System Comparisons

40. Digestive Tract Capacities

41. THE END Any questions?

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