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Computer Systems 1 Fundamentals of Computing The CPU & Von Neumann The CPU & Von-Neumann What’s in the box? – reminder CPU Overview Control Unit ALU Registers Catching a Bus Tying it all together Mr Von Neumann His legacy Computer Architecture CPU Central processing Unit

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Computer Systems 1Fundamentals of Computing

The CPU & Von Neumann


The cpu von neumann l.jpg
The CPU & Von-Neumann

  • What’s in the box? – reminder

  • CPU Overview

    • Control Unit

    • ALU

    • Registers

  • Catching a Bus

    • Tying it all together

  • Mr Von Neumann

    • His legacy

Computer Systems 1 (2004 - 2005)


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Computer Architecture

  • CPU

    • Central processing Unit

    • Speed measure in clock cycles

      • Hertz (Hz) – usually MHz or GHz

      • How quickly the CPU can execute instructions

  • CPU often measured in ‘bits’

    • 32-bit Processor / 64-bit processor

    • Confusion!!

      • Is this CPU memory word length?

      • Is this data bus width?

usually the answer

Computer Systems 1 (2004 - 2005)


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ALU

Control

Unit

CPU

High Speed Registers

Central Processing Unit (CPU)

  • CPU has three important parts:

    • ALU (Arithmetic and Logic Unit)

    • Control Unit

    • Registers

Computer Systems 1 (2004 - 2005)


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Central Processing Unit (CPU)

  • Arithmetic & Logic Unit

    • Handles mathematical and logical functions (numerical)

    • Deals with non-numerical logic operations

  • Control Unit

    • Handles all low-level hardware operations

      • Input & Output Devices and CPU

    • Carries out instruction handling

      • Fetch Execute Cycle

Computer Systems 1 (2004 - 2005)


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CPU Registers

  • Storage areas within the CPU

    • Used to temporarily store data read from memory

  • Accessible at High Speed

  • Anything for processing must be kept in a register

  • Can also hold the address of a memory location

  • Registers are used to process instructions and data during the Fetch Execute Cycle

    • Two main types of register:

      • Instruction Register (IR)

        • Commands to be performed

      • Data Registers

        • Data upon which operations will be performed

Computer Systems 1 (2004 - 2005)


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CPU Registers

  • Common registers in the CPU:

    • Program Counter (PC)

      • Holds the memory address of the next instruction to be executed

    • Memory Buffer Register (MBR)

      • Briefly holds data and instructions that travel to and from memory

      • Sometimes called MDR (Memory Data Register)

Computer Systems 1 (2004 - 2005)


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CPU Registers

  • Common registers in the CPU:

    • Memory Address Register (MAR)

      • Holds the memory address locations of data and/or instructions to be read / written to memory

    • Current Instruction Register (CIR)

      • Holds the instruction which is to be executed

    • General Purpose Registers

      • ‘Working areas’ for data processed by the ALU

Computer Systems 1 (2004 - 2005)


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Buses

  • A collection of wires which connects together the internal components of the computer

    • Allows transfer of data

  • Main types of bus:

    • Data bus

      • Carries actual data bits (information)

    • Address bus

      • Transfers locations where data should be sent

    • Control bus

      • Carries status information

Computer Systems 1 (2004 - 2005)


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CPU

INPUT

OUTPUT

DATA BUS

ADDRESS BUS

CONTROL BUS

MEMORY

Buses

  • How buses fit into the computer system:

Computer Systems 1 (2004 - 2005)


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CPU Buses

  • Parallel connections between low-level components of the computer

    • Size is measured by the number of parallel connections on the bus

      • E.g.- 32-bit wide bus = 32 individual wires

      • These bursts are called words

      • A word is a set measure of bits (in this case we have a 32-bit word)

  • Signals on buses follow strict timing sequences

  • Some buses are bi-directional

    • Allowing two way flow of information

Computer Systems 1 (2004 - 2005)


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Computer Architecture

  • The Von Neumann Model

    • 1903 - 1957

    • Mathematician

    • Quantum physicist

    • Worked on ENIAC

      • Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer

      • Major development in computer technology

    • Responsible for developing the Fetch Execute Cycle, and his namesake -

      • ‘Von Neumann Model’

    • The original computer geek?!

Computer Systems 1 (2004 - 2005)


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Von Neumann Model

  • Logically defines a complete computer system

  • Centralised control of all processes of the computer system

  • Defines main parts of the machine:

    • Memory

      • Storage for instructions and data

    • Processing unit

      • ALU functions

    • Control unit

      • Interpreting instructions

      • Issuing commands

    • Input and Output

      • For entering and retrieving data

Computer Systems 1 (2004 - 2005)


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Von Neumann Model

  • Logical Structure of the computer system

    • Routes of data transfer during processing

Computer Systems 1 (2004 - 2005)


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Von Neumann Model

  • Problem?

    • Von-Neumann Bottleneck

    • All instructions must be retrieved from memory before they are processed

      • Memory (RAM) runs at slower speeds than the processor is capable of

      • The difference between the speed of the RAM and the speed of the processor is the ‘bottleneck’

      • This is being remedied by faster RAM technologies

        • Such as SDRAM

Computer Systems 1 (2004 - 2005)


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CS1: Week 6

  • What you know now:

    • CPU Architecture

      • Bit size

      • ALU

      • Control Unit

      • Registers

        • Many different types

      • Buses

        • Address

        • Control

        • Data

    • Von Neumann Model

      • Problems!

Computer Systems 1 (2004 - 2005)


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