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Compact Green Cities: From an Oxymoron to a Target Dr. Kjell Nilsson Danish Centre for Forest, Landscape and Planning University of Copenhagen ” A spectre is haunting Europe . . .” The American Dream – A nightmare for Europe Land taken from nature and agriculture Artificial surfaces

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compact green cities from an oxymoron to a target
Compact Green Cities: From an Oxymoron to a Target

Dr. Kjell NilssonDanish Centre for Forest, Landscape and Planning University of Copenhagen

the american dream
The American Dream

– A nightmare for Europe

urban sprawl in europe

Land taken from nature and agriculture

Artificial surfaces

Land returned to nature and agriculture

1 Mill. ha

0,1 Mill. ha

16 Billion ha

+5 %

Developments in land cover in EU25 between 1990 and 2000

EEA Report No 10/2006

Urban Sprawl in Europe
urban growth shrinkage
Urban Growth & Shrinkage

Since the mid 1950s European cities have expanded on average by 78 %, whereas the population has grown only by 33 %

sres variant scenarios
SRES variant scenarios

Economic

Global

B1 –

Smart growth

(peak oil)

Shock – peak oil & energy price

A1 – High growth (hyper-tech)

Shock – rapid ICT development

Environ-

mental

Economic

Economic

B2 – Fragmentation (green enclaves)

Shock – pandemic & social exclusion

A2 – Self-reliance (extreme water)

Shock – climate change & water crises

Regional

urban sprawl negative consequences
Urban sprawl- negative consequences
  • Consumption of land, loss of agricultural land and open space
  • Destruction of biotopes and fragmentation of ecosystems
  • Higher cost of public services, especially transport
  • Increase of the use of private car, traffic congestion
  • Increase in fuel consumption and air pollution
  • Decay of downtown areas
  • Social segregation and reduction of social interaction
  • Poor access to to services for those with limited mobility

(SCATTER project)

slide11

Compact City

Vulnerable City

oxymoron compact green city
Oxymoron:Compact Green City

Stockholm

Copenhagen

Helsinki

ecosystem qol services in the peri urban landscape
Ecosystem & QoL Services in the peri-urban Landscape

Air quality

Ground water

Biodiversity

10 EUR/kg (game)

80-320 EUR/ha

0.145 EUR/m3

Health

Recreation

Social inclusion

0.5-1.0 EUR/visit

755 EUR/prevented theft

100 EUR/saved absence day

eu grants cap
EU grants (CAP)

Pasture 110-250 EUR/hectare

Old building 18 EUR

Open ditches 6 EUR/100 metres

Solitary tree 6 EUR

Stone walls 25 EUR/100 metres

peri urban land use relationships plurel 2007 2010
Peri-urban Land Use Relationships (PLUREL) 2007-2010
  • Models and strategies to enhance the understanding and handling of relationships between rural, peri-urban and urban land uses
  • Study and model the demands and competition for resources in Rural-Urban regions
  • Land-use scenarios for Rural-Urban regions in Europe
  • To explore case study regions in order to analyse the implications of planning policies and governance structures, and identify strategies for sustainable development
  • To assess environmental, social and economis impacts of land use changes
  • Enhance learning, cooperation and communication between policy makers, stakeholders, planners and researchers
case study regions

Haaglanden

Leipzig

Manchester

Warsaw

Montpellier

Hangzhou

Case study regions

Koper

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