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Compact Green Cities: From an Oxymoron to a Target Dr. Kjell Nilsson Danish Centre for Forest, Landscape and Planning University of Copenhagen ” A spectre is haunting Europe . . .” The American Dream – A nightmare for Europe Land taken from nature and agriculture Artificial surfaces

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Compact Green Cities: From an Oxymoron to a Target

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Compact Green Cities: From an Oxymoron to a Target

Dr. Kjell NilssonDanish Centre for Forest, Landscape and Planning University of Copenhagen


”A spectre is haunting Europe . . .”


The American Dream

– A nightmare for Europe


Land taken from nature and agriculture

Artificial surfaces

Land returned to nature and agriculture

1 Mill. ha

0,1 Mill. ha

16 Billion ha

+5 %

Developments in land cover in EU25 between 1990 and 2000

EEA Report No 10/2006

Urban Sprawl in Europe


Urban Growth & Shrinkage

Since the mid 1950s European cities have expanded on average by 78 %, whereas the population has grown only by 33 %


Urbanization on the edges of existing agglomerations

Randstad, NL

Leipzig - Halle, DE


SRES variant scenarios

Economic

Global

B1 –

Smart growth

(peak oil)

Shock – peak oil & energy price

A1 – High growth (hyper-tech)

Shock – rapid ICT development

Environ-

mental

Economic

Economic

B2 – Fragmentation (green enclaves)

Shock – pandemic & social exclusion

A2 – Self-reliance (extreme water)

Shock – climate change & water crises

Regional


Urban sprawl- negative consequences

  • Consumption of land, loss of agricultural land and open space

  • Destruction of biotopes and fragmentation of ecosystems

  • Higher cost of public services, especially transport

  • Increase of the use of private car, traffic congestion

  • Increase in fuel consumption and air pollution

  • Decay of downtown areas

  • Social segregation and reduction of social interaction

  • Poor access to to services for those with limited mobility

    (SCATTER project)


Urban Density and Energy Consumption


Compact City

Vulnerable City


The potential conflict between mitigation and adaptation

Mitigation

Adaptation

Urban density


The potential conflict between mitigation and adaptation

Mitigation

Adaptation

Urban density


Oxymoron:Compact Green City

Stockholm

Copenhagen

Helsinki


1. Better coordination between transport, land use and open space planning


2. Preservation of the green infrastructure for walking and cycling

Copenhagen

Stockholm

Hämeenlinna


3. Create new urban landscapes of a Compact Garden City

Malmo

Malmo

Oslo


4. Urban containment and integrated territorial policy approaches


5. Promotion of the Urban-Rural Interface

Tampere

Guangzhou


Ecosystem & QoL Services in the peri-urban Landscape

Air quality

Ground water

Biodiversity

10 EUR/kg (game)

80-320 EUR/ha

0.145 EUR/m3

Health

Recreation

Social inclusion

0.5-1.0 EUR/visit

755 EUR/prevented theft

100 EUR/saved absence day


EU grants (CAP)

Pasture 110-250 EUR/hectare

Old building 18 EUR

Open ditches 6 EUR/100 metres

Solitary tree 6 EUR

Stone walls 25 EUR/100 metres


Urban Forestry, Peri-Urban Agriculture Community Activity & Learning Centres

Edinburgh

Malmo

den Haag


Peri-urban Land Use Relationships (PLUREL) 2007-2010

  • Models and strategies to enhance the understanding and handling of relationships between rural, peri-urban and urban land uses

  • Study and model the demands and competition for resources in Rural-Urban regions

  • Land-use scenarios for Rural-Urban regions in Europe

  • To explore case study regions in order to analyse the implications of planning policies and governance structures, and identify strategies for sustainable development

  • To assess environmental, social and economis impacts of land use changes

  • Enhance learning, cooperation and communication between policy makers, stakeholders, planners and researchers


Haaglanden

Leipzig

Manchester

Warsaw

Montpellier

Hangzhou

Case study regions

Koper


PLUREL Newsletter


WWW.PLUREL.NET


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