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Cogeneration Facility Overview. Energy Services www.energy.unc.edu. History. Joshua Walker Gore (1852-1908) and Gore Building at Cogeneration Facility. Came to Chapel Hill in 1882, taught philosophy, physics and engineering Designed 1 st campus steam plant in 1895

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Cogeneration Facility Overview

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Cogeneration FacilityOverview

Energy Services

www.energy.unc.edu


History


Joshua Walker Gore (1852-1908) and Gore Building at Cogeneration Facility

  • Came to Chapel Hill in 1882, taught philosophy, physics and engineering

  • Designed 1st campus steam plant in 1895

    • Located near old Venable Hall

    • Burned coal and wood

    • Started cogeneration using a small steam turbine in 1901

  • New plant built on same site around 1920


  • Original Cameron Avenue plant

  • Constructed in 1941

  • Commitment to coal, 2 pulverized coal boilers


1978

  • Cameron Avenue Plant in 1974

  • Open coal pile

  • Bag houses to address stack emissions


Cameron Avenue Plant in 2005


District Energy System


U.S. Average Generating Efficiencies

100%

80%

UNC Cogen •

60%

40%

20%

0%

  • Traditional thermal electric plant

  • 65% of energy goes to a cooling tower, lake, etc.


Steam Distribution System


Plant Operation


Plant Operation

  • Built to utility standards, complete redundancy throughout

  • 2 circulating fluidized bed boilers, 250,000 lbs/hour

    • Only boilers capable of operating the turbine generator

    • Lower temperature than pulverized coal or gas, inhibits NOx

    • Limestone injection limits SO2 but creates CO2

    • 40 minutes before pressure incident if tripped

  • 1 natural gas/oil boiler, 250,000 lbs/hour

    • Fuel and boiler diversity to increase reliability

    • 10 minutes before pressure incident if tripped


Circulating Fluidized Bed System


NSPS 40CFR60, Subpart Db


Finances


How Expenses Are Paid

  • * Utility revenue comes from state appropriated budget for state-supported buildings


Revenue Sources


Major Rate Components

  • Debt Principal and Interest

    • 34% of total budget

    • $94 million remaining on debt to construct plant, paid in 2022

  • Fixed Costs

    • Do not vary with amount of steam produced

    • Examples: labor, maintenance

  • Variable Costs

    • Fuel is 30% of total budget

    • Natural gas is purchased at the interruptible rate


State of NC Requires Lowest Cost Operation

All-in cost includes limestone and ash disposal, and adjusted for lower efficiency of natural gas


State Recaptures Any Savings

  • Office of State Budget and Management

    • Determines increase factor

    • Adds to prior year’s actual expenditures

  • Example

    • Assume state appropriated utility budget is $100 million

    • Assume actual expenditures are $95 million

    • Assume OSBM increase factor is 10%

    • Increase = $9.5 million (calculated on $95 million)

    • $95 million + $9.5 million = $104.5 million new budget

    • Appropriated utility budget increased by $4.5 million


State Inadvertently Recaptures Energy Budgets for New Buildings

  • When a new building comes on line mid-year

    • Partial year’s funding received for the 1st year

    • Funding for remainder of full year ‘s cost provided in 2nd year

  • If the first year’s partial funding is not spent, then it is recaptured in the increase procedure and permanently lost

  • Partial year funds normally are not spent because

    • Utility costs are transferred from the contractor when the building is accepted and move-in occurs later so usage is low

    • Consumption is not uniform, may miss a summer or winter peak

    • No debt service or fixed cost components in the utility rates in the first year of a building’s operation


Alternative Energy


Climate Action Plan

  • UNC was an early adopter of the American College and University Presidents Climate Commitment

  • Pledged climate neutrality by 2050

  • Climate Action Plan adopted by University in September 2009

  • Alternative Energy Study, looked at alternatives to coal, began 2 years before Climate Action Plan issued


Energy

Conservation

Green Building

Transportation

Behavior

Supply

Chain

Offsets

Approach


Near-term Portfolio


Near Term Impact


A. Biomass Gasification at Carolina North (CN)

B. 100% Coal Substitute

C. 50% Coal Substitute

D. Plasma Gasification of MSW - Syngas

E. Shops and Informal Contract Recycling

F. 50% Natural Gas, 50% Coal Substitute

G. Plasma Gasification of MSW: Syngas + Natural Gas

H. 50% Natural Gas

I. Biomass Gasification w/ Biochar Production (CN)

J.Energy Conservation (Mid-High Investment)

K. Large Scale Biomass

L. Biomass Gasification at CN (Phase II)

M.Solar Thermal (CN)

N. Solar Thermal to Electricity (Troughs) (CN)

O. Solar Thermal to Electricity (Dish Sterling) (CN)

P. Demo Scale Concentrating Solar PV (CN)


A. Biomass Gasification at Carolina North (CN)

B. 100% Coal Substitute

C. 50% Coal Substitute

D. Plasma Gasification of MSW - Syngas

E. Shops and Informal Contract Recycling

F. 50% Natural Gas, 50% Coal Substitute

G. Plasma Gasification of MSW: Syngas + Natural Gas

H. 50% Natural Gas

I. Biomass Gasification w/ Biochar Production (CN)

J.Energy Conservation (Mid-High Investment)

K. Large Scale Biomass

L. Biomass Gasification at CN (Phase II)

M.Solar Thermal (CN)

N. Solar Thermal to Electricity (Troughs) (CN)

O. Solar Thermal to Electricity (Dish Sterling) (CN)

P. Demo Scale Concentrating Solar PV (CN)


50% Natural Gas

50% Coal Substitute

100% Coal Substitute

Plasma Gasification

Large Scale Biomass

Near-Term Portfolio

Long-Term Common

LFG Banked Offsets

Long-Term Alternative

Additional Projects


Biomass Issues

  • Fuel supply chain and cost

  • Front end fuel handling

    • Storage

    • Feed systems

  • Impact on combustion and heat transfer surface

  • Baghouse impacts

  • Ash disposal impacts


Biomass Plan

  • Test protocols – February 2010

  • Dried wood pellets tests – Spring 2010

  • Torrifiedwood tests – Fall to Winter 2010/2011

  • Evaluation and implementation plan development – 2010/2011

  • Burn 2012 – Dependent upon fuel supply reliability and extent of required modifications


Questions


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