Chapter 5 soft tissue trauma
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Chapter 5 Soft-Tissue Trauma. Topics. Introduction to Soft Tissue Injury Anatomy and Physiology of Soft-Tissue Injury Pathophysiology of Soft-Tissue Injury Dressing and Bandage Materials Assessment of Soft-Tissue Injuries Management of Soft-Tissue Injuries.

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Chapter 5 Soft-Tissue Trauma

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Chapter 5 soft tissue trauma

Chapter 5Soft-Tissue Trauma


Topics

Topics

  • Introduction to Soft Tissue Injury

  • Anatomy and Physiology of Soft-Tissue Injury

  • Pathophysiology of Soft-Tissue Injury

  • Dressing and Bandage Materials

  • Assessment of Soft-Tissue Injuries

  • Management of Soft-Tissue Injuries


Introduction to soft tissue trauma

Introduction to Soft-Tissue Trauma

  • Skin is the largest, most important organ.

  • 16% of total body weight.

  • Function:

    • Protection

    • Sensation

    • Temperature regulation

  • AKA: integumentary system


Introduction to soft tissue injury

Introduction to Soft-Tissue Injury

  • Epidemiology

    • Open wounds

      • Over 10 million wounds present to ED

        • Most require simple care and some suturing.

        • Up to 6.5% may become infected.

    • Closed wounds

      • More common

      • Contusions, sprains, strains


A p of soft tissue injuries 1 of 6

A&P of Soft-Tissue Injuries (1 of 6)

  • Skin Layers

    • Epidermis

      • Outermost, avascular layer of dead cells

      • Helps prevent infection

      • Sebum

        • Waxy, oily substance that lubricates surface

    • Dermis

      • Upper layer (papillary layer)

        • Loose connective tissue, capillaries, and nerves

      • Lower layer (reticular layer)

        • Integrates dermis with SQ layer

      • Blood vessels, nerve endings, glands

        • Sebaceous and sudoriferous glands

    • Subcutaneous

      • Adipose tissue

      • Heat retention


A p of soft tissue injuries the skin

A&P of Soft-Tissue InjuriesThe Skin


A p of soft tissue injuries 3 of 6

A&P of Soft-Tissue Injuries (3 of 6)

  • Blood Vessels

    • Arteries

    • Arterioles

    • Capillaries

    • Venules

    • Veins

  • Layers

    • Tunica intima

    • Tunica media

    • Tunica adventitia


A p of soft tissue injuries blood vessels

A&P of Soft-Tissue InjuriesBlood Vessels


A p of soft tissue injuries 5 of 6

A&P of Soft-Tissue Injuries (5 of 6)

  • Muscles

    • Beneath skin layers

    • Fascia

      • Thick, fibrous, inflexible membrane surrounding muscle that aids in binding muscle groups together


A p of soft tissue injuries 6 of 6

A&P of Soft Tissue Injuries (6 of 6)

  • Tension Lines

    • Natural patterns in the surface of the skin revealing tension within


Pathophysiology of soft tissue injury 1 of 12

Pathophysiology of Soft-Tissue Injury (1 of 12)

  • Closed Wounds

    • Contusions

      • Erythema

      • Ecchymosis

    • Hematomas

    • Crush injuries

  • Open Wounds

    • Abrasions

    • Lacerations

    • Incisions

    • Punctures

    • Impaled objects

    • Avulsions

    • Amputations


Pathophysiology of soft tissue injury 2 of 12 soft tissue wounds

Pathophysiology of Soft-Tissue Injury (2 of 12) Soft-Tissue Wounds


Pathophysiology of soft tissue injury 3 of 12

Pathophysiology of Soft-Tissue Injury (3 of 12)

  • Hemorrhage

    • Arterial

    • Capillary

    • Venous


Pathophysiology of soft tissue injury 4 of 12

Pathophysiology of Soft-Tissue Injury (4 of 12)

  • Wound Healing

    • Hemostasis

      • Body’s natural ability to stop bleeding and the ability to clot blood

      • Begins immediately after injury

    • Inflammation

      • Local biochemical process that attracts WBCs

    • Epithelialization

      • Migration of epithelial cells over wound surface


Pathophysiology of soft tissue injury 5 of 12

Pathophysiology of Soft-Tissue Injury (5 of 12)

  • Neovascularization

    • New growth of capillaries in response to healing

  • Collagen Synthesis

    • Fibroblasts: Cells that form collagen

    • Collagen: Tough, strong protein that comprises connective tissue


Pathophysiology of soft tissue injury

Pathophysiology of Soft-Tissue Injury

Wound Healing


Pathophysiology of soft tissue injury 7 of 12

Pathophysiology of Soft-Tissue Injury (7 of 12)

  • Infection

    • Most common and most serious complication of open wounds

    • 1:15 wounds seen in ED result in infection

    • Delay healing

    • Spread to adjacent tissues

    • Systemic infection: sepsis

    • Presentation

      • Pus: WBCs, cellular debris, and dead bacteria

      • Lymphangitis: visible red streaks

      • Fever and malaise

      • Localized fever


Pathophysiology of soft tissue injury 8 of 12

Pathophysiology of Soft-Tissue Injury (8 of 12)

  • Infection

    • Risk factors

      • Host’s health and pre-existing illnesses

        • Medications (NSAIDs)

      • Wound type and location

      • Associated contamination

      • Treatment provided

    • Infection management

      • Antibiotics and keep wound clean

      • Gangrene

        • Deep space infection of anaerobic bacteria

        • Bacterial gas and odor

      • Tetanus

        • Lockjaw

        • Uncommon with the exception of third-world country immigrants


Pathophysiology of soft tissue injury 9 of 12

Pathophysiology of Soft-Tissue Injury (9 of 12)

  • Other Wound Complications

    • Impaired hemostasis

      • Medications

        • Anticoagulants

          • Aspirin

          • Warfarin (Coumadin)

          • Heparin

          • Antifibrinolytics

    • Re-bleeding

    • Delayed healing

    • Compartment syndrome

    • Abnormal scar formation

    • Pressure injuries


Pathophysiology of soft tissue injury 10 of 12

Pathophysiology of Soft-Tissue Injury (10 of 12)

  • Crush Injury

    • Body tissues subjected to severe compressive forces

    • Tamponading of distal tissue

      • Buildup of byproducts of metabolism

      • “Wood-like” distal tissue

    • Associated injury


Pathophysiology of soft tissue injury 11 of 12

Pathophysiology of Soft-Tissue Injury (11 of 12)

  • Crush Syndrome

    • Body is entrapped for >4 hours.

    • Crushed muscle tissue becomes necrotic.

      • Traumatic rhabdomyolysis

        • Skeletal muscle degradation

        • Release of toxins

          • Myoglobin

          • Phosphate

          • Potassium

          • Lactic acid

          • Uric acid

      • When tissue is released, toxins move RAPIDLY into systemic circulation.

        • Impacts cardiac function

        • Impacts kidney function


Pathophysiology of soft tissue injury 12 of 12

Pathophysiology of Soft-Tissue Injury (12 of 12)

  • Injection Injury

    • High-pressure line bursts

    • Injects fluid or other substance into skin and into subcutaneous tissue


Dressing and bandage materials 1 of 2

Dressing and Bandage Materials (1 of 2)

  • Sterile and Non-sterile Dressings

    • Sterile: direct wound contact

    • Non-sterile: bulk dressing above sterile

  • Occlusive/Non-occlusive Dressings

  • Adherent/Non-adherent Dressings

    • Adherent: stick to blood or fluid

  • Absorbent/Non-absorbent

    • Absorbent: soak up blood or fluids

  • Wet/Dry Dressings

    • Wet: burns, postoperative wounds (sterile NS)

    • Dry: most common


Dressing and bandage materials 2 of 2

Dressing and Bandage Materials (2 of 2)

  • Self-adherent Roller Bandage

    • Kerlex/Kling

      • Multi-ply, stretch: 1–6”

  • Gauze Bandage

    • Single-ply, non-stretch: 1–3”

  • Adhesive Bandages

  • Elastic (Ace) Bandages

  • Triangular Bandages


Assessment of soft tissue injuries

Assessment of Soft-Tissue Injuries

  • Scene Size-up

  • Initial Assessment

  • Focused H&P

    • Evaluate MOI and consider IOS

    • Rapid versus focused assessment

  • Detailed Physical Exam

    • Inquiry, inspection, palpation, auscultation

  • Ongoing Assessment


Management of soft tissue injury 1 of 4

Management of Soft-Tissue Injury (1 of 4)

  • Objectives of Wound Dressing and Bandaging

    • Hemorrhage control

      • Direct pressure

      • Elevation

      • Pressure points

      • Consider

        • Ice

        • Constricting band

        • Tourniquet

    • USE ALL COMPONENTS TOGETHER.


Management of soft tissue injury 2 of 4 tourniquet

Do

Apply in a way that will not injure tissue beneath it.

Use something at least 2” wide.

Consider using a blood pressure cuff.

Write TQ and time placed on patient’s forehead.

Don’t

Use unless you cannot control the bleeding via other means.

Use rope or wire.

Release it once applied.

Management of Soft-Tissue Injury (2 of 4)Tourniquet


Management of soft tissue injury 3 of 4

Management of Soft-Tissue Injury (3 of 4)

  • Objectives of Wound Dressing and Bandaging

    • Sterility

      • Keep the wound as clean as possible.

      • If wound is grossly contaminated, consider cleansing.

    • Immobilization

      • Prevents movement and aggravation of wound.

      • Do not use an elastic bandage: TQ effect.

      • Monitor distal pulse, motor, and sensation.


Management of soft tissue injury 4 of 4

Management of Soft-Tissue Injury (4 of 4)

  • Pain and Edema Control

    • Cold packs

    • Moderate pressure over wound

    • Consider analgesic if approved by medical direction:

      • Morphine sulfate

        • 2 mg SIVP every 5 minutes up to a total of 10 mg given.

      • Fentanyl (Sublimaze)

        • 25–50 mcg SIVP followed by an additional 25 mcg as needed.

        • If given too rapidly, chest wall rigidity may ensue leading to respiratory compromise.


Anatomical considerations for bandaging 1 of 17

Anatomical Considerations for Bandaging (1 of 17)

  • Scalp

    • Rich supply of blood vessels

    • Rarely account for shock

    • Can be severe and difficult to control

    • With skull fracture:

      • Gentle digital pressure around the wound

      • Pressure on local arteries

    • Without skull fracture:

      • Direct pressure


Anatomical considerations for bandaging 2 of 17

Anatomical Considerations for Bandaging (2 of 17)

  • Face

    • Heavy bleeding.

    • Assess and protect the airway.

    • Blood is a gastric irritant.

      • Be alert for nausea and vomiting.

  • Ear or Mastoid

    • Cover and collect bleeding.

    • DO NOT STOP.

      • CSF.


Anatomical considerations for bandaging 3 of 17

Anatomical Considerations for Bandaging (3 of 17)

  • Neck

    • Consider circumferential bandage.

      • Protect trachea and carotids.

      • C-collar and dressing.

    • Occlusive dressing if lacerated vessel.

  • Shoulder

    • Care to avoid pressure.

      • Axillary artery.

      • Trachea.

      • Anterior neck.


Anatomical considerations for bandaging 4 of 17

Anatomical Considerations for Bandaging (4 of 17)

  • Trunk

    • Minor wounds: Dressing and tape.

    • Major wounds: Circumferential wrap.

      • Ladder splint behind back and wrap gauze over it.

        • Prevents worsening of respiratory status.

  • Groin and Hip

    • Bandage by following contours of body.

    • Movement can increase tightness of bandage.


Anatomical considerations for bandaging 5 of 17

Anatomical Considerations for Bandaging (5 of 17)

  • Elbow and Knee

    • Circumferential wrap and splint

      • Splinting reduces movement

      • Position of function

      • Half flexion/half extension

  • Hand and Finger

    • Remove jewelry from wrist and fingers

    • Bulky dressing

    • Position of function

  • Ankle and Foot

    • Circumferential bandage


Anatomical considerations for bandaging 6 of 17

Anatomical Considerations for Bandaging (6 of 17)

  • Complications of Bandaging

    • Always assess before and after:

      • Pulse

      • Motor

      • Sensation

    • Developing ischemia:

      • Pain

      • Pallor

      • Tingling

      • Loss of pulse

      • Decreased capillary refill

    • Is dressing size appropriate to injury?


Anatomical considerations for bandaging 7 of 17 specific wounds

Anatomical Considerations for Bandaging(7 of 17)Specific Wounds

  • Amputations

    • Patient

      • Control bleeding by bulky dressing.

      • Consider tourniquet proximal to wound.

      • Do not delay transport to locate amputated part.

        • Have a second unit transport the part.

    • Amputated Part

      • Dry cooling and rapid transport.

        • Part in plastic bag (double bag).

        • Immerse in cold water.

        • Avoid direct contact between tissue and cold water.


Anatomical considerations for bandaging 8 of 17 specific wounds

Anatomical Considerations for Bandaging (8 of 17)Specific Wounds

  • Impaled Objects

    • Stabilize with bulky dressing in place.

    • Prevent movement of object.

    • Consider cutting or shortening LARGE impaled objects.

      • Prevent gross movement.

      • Reduce heat to patient if cutting torch used.

    • REMOVE ONLY IF:

      • In cheek and interferes with airway

      • Interferes with CPR

        • Poor outcome


Anatomical considerations for bandaging 9 of 17 specific wounds

Anatomical Considerations for Bandaging (9 of 17)Specific Wounds

  • Crush Syndrome

    • Anticipate problems.

    • Victims of prolonged entrapment.

    • Ensure that scene is safe.

      • Initial assessment.

      • Control any initial problems.

    • Greater the body area compressed, the longer the entrapment, the greater the risk of crush syndrome.

    • Once body part is freed, toxic by-products of crush injury are released into systemic circulation.

    • General management for soft tissue and musculoskeletal injury.


Anatomical considerations for bandaging 10 of 17 specific wounds

Anatomical Considerations for Bandaging (10 of 17)Specific Wounds

  • Crush Syndrome

    • Management

      • IV: 20–30 mL/kg of NS or D51/2 NS.

      • AVOID LR or K+ based solutions.

      • After bolus, continuous infusion of 20 mL/kg/hr.

      • Consider sodium bicarbonate:

        • 1 mEq/kg initial bolus

        • 0.25 mEq/kg/hr infusion

        • Corrects systemic acidosis

      • Consider calcium chloride:

        • 500 mg IVP

        • Counteracts hyperkalemia

      • Consider diuretics:

        • Mannitol (Osmotrol)

        • Furosemide (Lasix)


Anatomical considerations for bandaging 11 of 17 specific wounds

Anatomical Considerations for Bandaging (11 of 17)Specific Wounds

  • Compartment Syndrome

    • Likely 4–8 hours post-injury

    • Symptom

      • Severe pain out of proportion with physical exam findings

      • 6 Ps

        • Pain

        • Paresthesia

        • Paresis

        • Pressure

        • Passive stretching pain

        • Pulselessness

      • Normal motor and sensory function


Anatomical considerations for bandaging 12 of 17 specific wounds

Anatomical Considerations for Bandaging (12 of 17)Specific Wounds

  • Compartment Syndrome

    • Management

      • Care of underlying injury.

      • Splint and immobilize all suspected fractures.

      • Cold packs to severe contusions:

        • Most effective prehospital management

        • Reduces edema

        • Prevents ischemia


Anatomical considerations for bandaging 13 of 17

Anatomical Considerations for Bandaging (13 of 17)

  • Face and Neck

    • Potential for airway obstruction or compromise

    • Aggressive suctioning and oxygenation

    • Consider intubation:

      • Verify ET tube placement.

      • Ensure tube remains in the airway by using continuous waveform capnography.

      • If excessive swelling or damage:

        • Needle or surgical cricothyroidotomy.


Anatomical considerations for bandaging 14 of 17

Anatomical Considerations for Bandaging (14 of 17)

  • Thorax

    • Superficial injury can be deep.

    • Always suspect the worst due to underlying organs.

    • NEVER explore a wound internally.

    • Alert for:

      • Subcutaneous emphysema

      • Pneumothorax or hemothorax

      • Tension pneumothorax

    • Consider occlusive dressing sealed on 3 sides.


Anatomical considerations for bandaging 15 of 17

Anatomical Considerations for Bandaging (15 of 17)

  • Abdominal Region

    • Always suspect injury to ribs or thoracic organs if between the level of the 5th and 9th rib.

    • Damage to hollow or solid organs from blunt or penetrating trauma.

    • Signs of symptoms of internal injury may be subtle and slow to progress.

    • Supportive treatment unless aggressive care is warranted.


Anatomical considerations for bandaging 16 of 17

Anatomical Considerations for Bandaging (16 of 17)

  • Wounds Requiring Transport

    • Any wound that involves

      • Nerves

      • Blood vessels

      • Ligaments

      • Tendons

      • Muscles

      • Significantly contaminated

      • Impaled object

      • Likely cosmetic injury


Anatomical considerations for bandaging 17 of 17

Anatomical Considerations for Bandaging (17 of 17)

  • Soft-Tissue Treatment and Refer or Release

    • Typically requires on-line medical direction.

    • Evaluate and dress wound.

    • Inform the patient about:

      • Preventing infection.

      • Follow-up care with a physician.

      • Inquire about tetanus and inform of risks.

    • Document treatment, referral, and teaching.


Summary

Summary

  • Introduction to Soft Tissue Injury

  • Anatomy and Physiology of Soft-Tissue Injury

  • Pathophysiology of Soft-Tissue Injury

  • Dressing and Bandage Materials

  • Assessment of Soft-Tissue Injuries

  • Management of Soft-Tissue Injuries


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