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Acids and Bases. Acids & Bases. Water and acid combine in an exothermic reaction - releasing large amounts of heat. Water and acid combine in an exothermic reaction - releasing large amounts of heat. Acid - Base Theories. Lavoisier Arrhenius Bronsted-Lowry Lewis.

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Acids

and

Bases



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Water and acid combine in

an exothermic reaction -

releasing large amounts

of heat.


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Water and acid combine in

an exothermic reaction -

releasing large amounts

of heat.


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Acid - Base Theories

  • Lavoisier

  • Arrhenius

  • Bronsted-Lowry

  • Lewis


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AntoineLavoisier


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Lavoisier - 1777

Acidity is caused by

the presence of

oxygen in the

compound.


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Lavoisier - 1777

He even created the word

oxygen - from the

Greek oxys, "sour"

and genes, "born"


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Lavoisier - 1777

Oxygen means

"acid maker".


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Lavoisier - 1777

Lavoisier's idea about

acids turned out

to be wrong...


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Lavoisier - 1777

but it is historically important

since it is the first scientific

attempt to chemically

characterize acids

and bases.


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Each theory

includes more

substances as

acids and bases

Arrhenius

Bronsted-Lowry

Lewis


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SvanteAugustArrhenius


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Arrhenius Acid

Any substance

that produces

hydrogen ions,

H+, in water

solution.


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Arrhenius Base

Any substance

that produces

hydroxide ions,

OH-, in water

solution.


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In a formula, such as HCl,

the positive part of a

Arrhenius acid

will ALWAYS

be hydrogen.


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In a formula, such as

NaOH, the negative part

of a Arrhenius

base will

ALWAYS

be hydroxide.


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Arrhenius acids and

bases, and soluble salts,

are called electrolytes.


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When each dissolves,

ions are released that

conduct electricity.


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If a solution has

NO ions, it cannot

conduct electricity.


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Bronsted-Lowry Theory

JohannesNicolausBronsted


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Bronsted-Lowry Theory

ThomasMartinLowry


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Bronsted-Lowry Acid

Any substance that

acts as a proton donor.


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Bronsted-Lowry Acid

A B-L acid MUST have

hydrogen somewhere

in its

formula.


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Bronsted-Lowry Acid

When an electron is

removed from a

hydrogen atom...

-

+


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Bronsted-Lowry Acid

a hydrogen ion is

produced - a proton.

+


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Bronsted-Lowry Base

Any substance that

acts as a proton

acceptor.


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Bronsted-Lowry Base

Most negative ions can

acts as B-L bases.


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Bronsted-Lowry Theory

The acid/base definitions

are broadened because no

specific ion must be formed,

although hydrogen is the only source of protons.



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H3O+


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Bronsted-Lowry Theory

The hydronium ion is formed

by combining a hydrogen ion and a water molecule.

H2O + H+ H3O+


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Bronsted-Lowry Theory

conjugate base


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Bronsted-Lowry Theory

A conjugate base is the

particle that remains

AFTER an acid gives

up a proton.


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Bronsted-Lowry Theory

conjugate acid


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Bronsted-Lowry Theory

A conjugate acid is the

particle formed when a

base accepts a proton.


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HCl + H2O Cl- + H3O+

Identify the B-L acid

in this equation.

What gives up a proton from

the left side to the right?


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HCl + H2O Cl- + H3O+

HCl donates a proton,

it is the B-L acid.


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HCl + H2O Cl- + H3O+

Identify the B-L base

in this equation.

What gains a proton from

the left side to the right?


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HCl + H2O Cl- + H3O+

H2O accepts a proton,

it is the B-L base.


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HCl + H2O Cl- + H3O+

Identify the conjugate

base in this equation.

What is left when the

acid gives up a proton?


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HCl + H2O Cl- + H3O+

Cl- is left when HCl

gives up a proton, it

is the conjugate base.


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HCl + H2O Cl- + H3O+

Identify the conjugate

acid in this equation.

What is formed when the

base accepts a proton?


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HCl + H2O Cl- + H3O+

H3O+ is formed when

water accepts a proton,

it is the conjugate acid.


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HCl + H2O Cl- + H3O+

acids have

conjugate bases


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HCl + H2OCl- +H3O+

bases have

conjugate acids










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The Lewis Theory

GilbertNewtonLewis


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Lewis Acid

Any substance that

acts as an

electron-pair

acceptor.


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Lewis Base

Any substance that

acts as an

electron-pair

donor.


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The Lewis Theory

This theory is the

broadest of all.


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The Lewis Theory

Any reaction that

involves the exchange

of electrons WILL

have a Lewis acid

and Lewis base.


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The Lewis Theory

In an equation, the Lewis

acid gets

MORE NEGATIVE

from the left side to the

right side - it gains e-.


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The Lewis Theory

In an equation, the Lewis

base gets

MORE POSITIVE

from the left side to the

right side - it loses e-.


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Cl2 + I- Cl- + I2

Identify the Lewis acid

in this equation.

What gets more negative?


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Cl2 + I- Cl- + I2

Cl2 gets more negative

from the left side to the

right, it is the Lewis acid.


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Cl2 + I- Cl- + I2

Identify the Lewis base

in this equation.

What gets more positive?


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Cl2 + I- Cl- + I2

I- gets more positive

from the left side to the

right, it is the Lewis base.


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End Acid - Base Theories


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Binary Acids

Acids composed of

two elements:

hydrogen and a halogen


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Naming Binary Acids

First:

Determine the stem word.

The stem word comes from

the negative element.


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Naming Binary Acids

First:

Determine the stem word.

Example - HCl

chlorine is the negative

element - CHLOR is the stem.


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Naming Binary Acids

Second:

Add the prefix hydro

to the stem.


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Naming Binary Acids

Second:

Add the prefix hydro

to the stem.

Example - hydro + chlor


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Naming Binary Acids

Third:

Change the ending

of the stem to ic.


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Naming Binary Acids

Third:

Change the ending

of the stem to ic.

Example - hydro + chlor + ic


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Naming Binary Acids

Final name:

hydrochloric acid


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Naming Binary Acids

  • HCl

  • HF

  • HBr

  • HI


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Naming Binary Acids

  • HCl hydro chlor ic acid

  • HF

  • HBr

  • HI


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Naming Binary Acids

  • HCl hydro chlor ic acid

  • HF hydro fluor ic acid

  • HBr

  • HI


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Naming Binary Acids

  • HCl hydro chlor ic acid

  • HF hydro fluor ic acid

  • HBr hydro brom ic acid

  • HI


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Naming Binary Acids

  • HCl hydro chlor ic acid

  • HF hydro fluor ic acid

  • HBr hydro brom ic acid

  • HI hydro iod ic acid


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Naming Ternary Acids

Ternary acids composed of

three elements:

hydrogen, oxygen,

and a nonmetal


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Naming Ternary Acids

First:

Determine the stem

part of the name of

the third element


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Naming Ternary Acids

First:

Determine the stem

Example - H2SO4

sulfur is the third element,

SULFUR is the stem.


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Naming Ternary Acids

Second:

The most common form of the acid is given the suffix ic.


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Naming Ternary Acids

Second:

The most common form of the acid is given the suffix ic.

Example - sulfur + ic acid


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Naming Ternary Acids

Third:

If the acid is NOT in its

most common form,

do the following:


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Naming Ternary Acids

Add the prefix perif the acid

has one more oxygen than

the most common form.


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Naming Ternary Acids

Add the prefix perif the acid

has one more oxygen than

the most common form.

Example -H2SO5

per + sulfuric acid


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Naming Ternary Acids

Add the suffix ous if the acid

has one less oxygen than

the most common form.


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Naming Ternary Acids

Add the suffix ous if the acid

has one less oxygen than

the most common form.

Example -H2SO3

sulfur + ous acid


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Naming Ternary Acids

Add the prefix hypo if the acid

has two less oxygen atoms

than the most common form.


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Naming Ternary Acids

Add the prefix hypo if the acid

has two less oxygen atoms

than the most common form.

Example -H2SO2

hypo + sulfur + ous acid


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Naming Ternary Acids

HClO3Chloric Acid


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Naming Ternary Acids

HClO4

HClO3Chloric Acid


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Naming Ternary Acids

HClO4 Perchloric Acid

HClO3Chloric Acid


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Naming Ternary Acids

HClO4 Perchloric Acid

HClO3Chloric Acid

HClO2


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Naming Ternary Acids

HClO4 Perchloric Acid

HClO3Chloric Acid

HClO2Chlorous Acid


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Naming Ternary Acids

HClO4 Perchloric Acid

HClO3Chloric Acid

HClO2Chlorous Acid

HClO


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Naming Ternary Acids

HClO4 Perchloric Acid

HClO3Chloric Acid

HClO2Chlorous Acid

HClO Hypochlorous Acid


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Strongor Weak


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Strong or Weak

Strong acids and bases

ionize completely in

water solution.


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Strong or Weak

HCl, HBr, and HI are the

only Strong binary acids.


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Strong or Weak

In Strong ternary acids,

the number of oxygen

atoms exceeds the

number of...


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Strong or Weak

hydrogen atoms by

two or more.

H2SO4 and HNO3 are strong.

H3PO4 is weak.


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Strong or Weak

Hydroxides of

groups 1 and 2,

except Be, are

Strong bases.


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Amphoteric

A substance that acts

as either an acid or

base, depending on

what it reacts with.


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HOH

Water is the most

common amphoteric

substance.


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Anhydrous - Without H2O


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Acid Anhydride -

an oxide that produces

an acid in water.


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Acid Anhydride -

oxides of nonmetals

SO2 + H2O H2SO3


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Basic Anhydride -

an oxide that produces

a base in water.


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Basic Anhydride -

oxides of metals

Na2O + H2O 2NaOH


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Anhydrous - Without H2O

Write the anhydrous form of:

1. H2SO3

2. H2C2O4

3. H3PO4

4. H4C2O2


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Anhydrous - Without H2O

Write the anhydrous form of:

1. H2SO3 SO2

2. H2C2O4

3. H3PO4

4. H4C2O2


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Anhydrous - Without H2O

Write the anhydrous form of:

1. H2SO3 SO2

2. H2C2O4C2O3

3. H3PO4

4. H4C2O2


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Anhydrous - Without H2O

Write the anhydrous form of:

1. H2SO3 SO2

2. H2C2O4C2O3

3. H3PO4 HPO3

4. H4C2O2


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Anhydrous - Without H2O

Write the anhydrous form of:

1. H2SO3 SO2

2. H2C2O4C2O3

3. H3PO4 HPO3

4. H4C2O2C2


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END

Acids

and

Bases


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