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The Swedish Model “Vision Zero” Authors Matts-Åke Belin Roger Johansson Anders Lie (presenting) Claes Tingvall The Swedish Road Administration Content Vision Zero, five dimensions Alcohol in traffic, problems and actions Development Sweden Killed in Sweden 1935 - 2004 1 400 5 000 000

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the swedish model vision zero
Swedish Road Administration

The Swedish Model “Vision Zero”

Authors

Matts-Åke Belin

Roger Johansson

Anders Lie (presenting)

Claes Tingvall

The Swedish Road Administration

content
Swedish Road AdministrationContent
  • Vision Zero, five dimensions
  • Alcohol in traffic, problems and actions
development sweden
Swedish Road AdministrationDevelopment Sweden

Killed in Sweden 1935 - 2004

1 400

5 000 000

cars

killed

4 500 000

1 200

4 000 000

1 000

3 500 000

3 000 000

800

2 500 000

600

2 000 000

1 500 000

400

1 000 000

200

500 000

0

0

1935

1940

1945

1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

the current road transport system
Swedish Road AdministrationThe current road transport system
  • Major mismatch between components of the system
  • Trade-off between health and benefits allowed
  • Unclear responsibilities
  • Unclear safety philosophy
  • Weak driving forces for change
slide5
History

On October 9, 1997 the Road Traffic Safety Bill founded on "Vision Zero" was passed by a large majority in the Swedish Parliament. This represents an entirely new way of thinking with respect to road traffic safety.

Goal

The long term goal is that no-one shall be killed or seriously injured within the Swedish road transport system.

Swedish Road Administration

VISION ZERO : A SAFE TRAFFIC CONCEPT

vision zero zero fatalities at least not only vision zero 5 dimensions or more
Swedish Road Administration

Vision Zero ≠ Zero Fatalities(At least not only)Vision Zero = 5 dimensions(or more?)

vision for many stakeholder

ethical platform

shared responsibility

safety philosophy

driving forces for change

vision for many stakeholder
Swedish Road AdministrationVision for many stakeholder
  • Traffic safety is a shared responsibility for many stakeholders
  • A joint vision is a powerful tool to focus the work
  • A vision sets out a future desired situation - not a step by step action with no definition of it’s end point
ethical platform
Swedish Road AdministrationEthical platform
  • Human life and health is paramount
  • Life and health can not, in the long run, be traded against other benefits
  • Mobility is a function of the safety level
shared responsibility
Swedish Road AdministrationShared responsibility
  • Historically main responsibility on the road user
  • In Vision Zero the responsibility is shared between road users and system designers
shared responsibility10
Swedish Road AdministrationShared responsibility

System designers are responsible for the design, operation and the use of the road transport system and are thereby responsible for the level of safety within the entire system.

Road users are responsible for following the rules for using the road transport system set by the system designers.

If the users fail to comply with these rules due to a lack of knowledge, acceptance or ability, the system designers are required to take the necessary further steps to counteract people being killed or injured.

system designers everyone that influences the design function and use of the road transport system
Swedish Road AdministrationSystem designers = everyone that influences the design, function and use of the road transport system

politicians

community planners

road managers

municipal authorities

vehicle manufacturers

transport companies and everyone who professionally uses roads and streets

police

rescue forces

occupational health and safety authorities

and more

slide13
Swedish Road Administration

Safety Philosophy

”Any well functioning man-machine system brings the failing human into the loop”.

”Blaming the victim approach is a catastrophe to prevention”.

safety philosophy
Swedish Road AdministrationSafety philosophy
  • Inspiration from other areas ( i.e. occupational health and safety)
  • People make errors, mistakes and misjudgements
  • There are biomechanical tolerance limits
  • The chain of events can be cut at many places
  • Focus on injuries not crashes
impaired driving
Swedish Road Administration

Impaired driving

  • Alcohol
  • Fatigue
  • Drugs (illegal)
  • Medicine
  • Distraction
impaired driving22
Swedish Road Administration

Impaired driving

The Commission is currently conducting a review into the European Road Safety Action Programme and will, at the beginning of 2006, draw up an assessment of measures which have been taken at the European and Member State levels. Without pre-empting the conclusions of this assessment, it seems clear that the main causes of accidents remain speeding, the non-wearing of seat belts and helmets and alcohol/ drugs/ fatigue:

alcohol in road traffic
Swedish Road Administration

Alcohol in road traffic

Many road crashes are related to alcohol. The proportion is growing with crash severity

In Europe it is estimated that 25% of the severe crashes are related to alcohol.

alcohol in swedish traffic
Swedish Road AdministrationAlcohol in Swedish traffic

Even very small amounts of alcohol can affect your driving ability. Sweden has a very strict law that entitles the Police to give a Breathalyzer test, even if there is no reason to suspect that you are driving under the influence of alcohol. If your blood level alcohol content is 0.2 promille or the content of alcohol in your exhaled breath is 0.10mg/l or more, this will result in a stiff fine, a prison sentence or both. You will also lose your driving license. Alcohol also remains in your system the day after you drink it. When attending a party in a Swedish home, it is customary for the hostess to ask who\'s driving; and non-alcoholic beverages are always provided. Do Not Drink and Drive.

American Women\'s Club in Sweden

drunk driver sorted by age fatal crashes sweden 2002

25

20

15

Number

10

5

0

15-24 years

25-34 years

35-44 years

45-54 years

55-64 years

65- years

Swedish Road Administration

Drunk driver sorted by age, Fatal crashes Sweden 2002
blood alcohol levels and police report fatal crashes sweden 2002

30

25

20

Number

15

10

5

0

0,1-0,19

0,2-0,9

1,0-1,9

2,0-2,9

3,0-

No Report

Report

Swedish Road Administration

Blood Alcohol Levels and Police Report. Fatal crashes Sweden 2002
alcohol non alcohol related crashes to crash type fatal crashes sweden 2002
Swedish Road AdministrationAlcohol/non-alcohol related crashes to crash type. Fatal crashes Sweden 2002

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%

Single car

Other

Head on

Rear end

Overtaking

Pedestrians

Intersections

Alcohol related

Non-alcohol related

fatigue
Swedish Road Administration

Fatigue

Many road crashes are related to fatigue. The proportion is growing with crash severity

In Europe it is estimated that 20% of the severe crashes are related to fatigue.

when road and rules are important
Swedish Road AdministrationWhen road and rules are important

Normal

driving

Dangerous

situation

Health

treatment

Access

Crash

approaches
Swedish Road AdministrationApproaches
  • Citizens/drivers
  • Surveillance
  • Rehabilitation
  • Technique in cars
  • Road design
main areas
Swedish Road AdministrationMain areas
  • Driver acceptance
  • Police surveillance/enforcement
  • Alcohols starter interlocks
driver acceptance
Swedish Road AdministrationDriver acceptance
  • Information
  • Low levels 0.2 per mille BAC
  • Focus young drivers
  • Less than 0,5 % with alcohol
social development

Road user

behaviour

Alcohol

X

X

Seat belts

Technical phase

Speeds

Rules and

control phase

X

Cycle helmet

X

Information phase

Time

Swedish Road Administration

Social development
police surveillance enforcement
Swedish Road AdministrationPolice surveillance / enforcement
  • Random breath testing (1760 000 in 2005)

(5,7 million drivers with licence)

  • Anywhere, anytime and any policeman

(more than 99,5 % without alcohol)

  • Well documented benefits
alcohol starter interlocks

Normal

driving

Dangerous

situation

Health

treatment

Crash

Swedish Road Administration

Alcohol starter interlocks
  • Rehabilitation Programme
  • Commercial transports
  • Private cars

Access

rehabilitation programme
Swedish Road AdministrationRehabilitation programme
  • Used by DWI offenders in rehabilitation programmes.
  • A lock that is difficult to manipulate with a reliable and accurate alcohol measuring. A log stores all the events and there is a possibility for retests at random time intervals.
  • Approximately 500 units per year
  • Very positive results for highly motivated drivers
  • Focus the highest need
commercial transport
Swedish Road AdministrationCommercial transport
  • Used to ensure sober drivers
  • Transport companies, taxi, school buses, traffic schools etc
  • Demanded by for example Swedish Road Administration
  • Around 10 000 units in traffic
  • Focus the highly motivated on a market
  • Create a market for safe transports
slide39
Swedish Road Administration
  • Volvo Cars and Saab Automobile are developing new products with support from Swedish Road Administration
private cars
Swedish Road AdministrationPrivate cars
  • Strong political will
  • High public acceptance
  • Development needs
  • Sweden wants to be test market
the swedish commission on alcolocks n 2004 16
Swedish Road AdministrationThe Swedish Commission on alcolocks (N 2004:16)

The Commission on alcolocks (N 2004:16) has an assignment from the Government to investigate the possibilities to introduce demands for alkolocks or other devices to prevent drunk driving in all new cars registered in Sweden by the year 2012 at the latest.

We want an earlier introduction of an alkolock obligation for buses and lorries by 2010. The Commission will also look into the steps to be taken to increase the acceptance and use of alcolocks.

impaired driving challenges
Swedish Road Administration

Impaired driving, challenges

Price and handling must suite high volume introduction

Can systems be developed that can handle all kinds of impaired driving? (Alcohol, fatigue, illegal drugs etc.)

What should the car do when impaired/dangerous driving is detected?

Legal obstacles, responsibility etc.

sectors must co operate
Swedish Road AdministrationSectors must co-operate
  • Research
  • Industry
  • Public authorities
  • Drivers
  • Transport buyers
  • Occupational Health and Safety
  • The public
  • Politicians
  • National and international
slide49
Swedish Road Administration

A Review of the Literature on the Effects of Low Doses of Alcohol on Driving-Related Skills, H. Moskowitz, D. Fiorentino, U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, USA

  • Alcohol impairs some driving skills beginning with any significant departure from zero BAC. By BACs of 0.05 g/dl, the majority of the experimental studies examined reported significant impairment. By 0.08 g/dl, more than 94% of the studies reviewed exhibited skills impairment.
  • Specific performance skills are differentially affected by alcohol. Some skills are significantly impaired by BACs of 0.01 g/dl, while others do not show impairment until BACs of 0.06 g/dl.
  • Discrepancies between the reported BAC threshold of impairment within a behavioral area reflected a lack of standardization of testing methods, instruments, and measures in the studies reviewed.
  • All drivers are expected to experience impairment in some driving-related skills by 0.08 g/dl or less.
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