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Survey Research. Presented by Ani Kitiashvili Department of Psychology Tbilisi State University. Private Eye political commentary and humor weekly. Characteristics. Survey is most widely used research technique in social sciences

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Survey Research

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Survey Research

Presented by Ani Kitiashvili

Department of Psychology

Tbilisi State University


Private Eye political commentary and humor weekly


Characteristics

  • Survey is most widely used research technique in social sciences

  • Data collected from surveys ranges from physical counts and frequencies to attitudes and opinions.


Survey data is used to:

  • To answer questions

  • To assess needs.

  • To set goals.

  • To analyze trends across time.

  • To describe what exists, in what amount, and in what context and etc. . . . .


Focus of survey research questions

  • Behaviors

  • Attitudes/beliefs/opinions

  • Characteristics

  • Expectations

  • Self classification

  • Knowledge


Five kinds of measures

  • What kind of informationmight be measured

  • - What people say that they do (behaviors)

  • – What people think is true (beliefs)

  • – What people are (attributes)

  • – What people say they want (their attitudes)

  • (Dillman, Don A. (1978). Mail and Telephone Survyes: The Total Design Method. NYC: John)


Four stages of the survey research method

1. Design and Planning.

2. Data collection

3. Data Analysis

4. Write up and communication


Stages …

  • Design and planning stage.

    • Decide on type of survey to use and type of respondent.

      • Type of survey method.

        • Mail.

        • Telephone.

        • Face-to-face.

        • E-mail

      • Type of respondent.

        • Adults over 18 years of age.

        • Native speakers only or all languages.


Stages …

  • Develop the survey instrument (questionnaire or interview schedule).

    • Organize the question sequence.

    • Design the questionnaire layout.

    • Develop a system to record answers.

    • Pilot test the questionnaire

    • Train the interweavers


Stages …

  • Drawing the sample.

    • Define the population of your interest

    • Decide on sample size and sample type

    • Develop the sampling frame.

    • Select the sample.

  • Data collection stage.

    • Contact the respondents.

    • Ask the questions and record the answers.

    • Thank the respondent for cooperating.

    • End data collection.


  • Stages …

    • Data analysis

      • Code data.

      • Enter data into a computer.

      • Statistical analysis.

      • Draw conclusions.

    • Write up and communication

      • Summarize your results and incorporate them into the results section of your report/thesis/paper.


    Main Survey instruments’ features


    Survey instruments’ features


    Survey instruments’ featuresSources of bias


    Guidelines to conducting a survey

    • Define the purpose and scope of the survey in explicit terms.

    • Avoid using an existing survey instrument.

    • designing a survey instrument

    • Field test the survey instrument to spot ambiguous or redundant items and to arrive at a format leading to ease of data tabulation and analysis.


    Guidelines…

    • Use structured questions as possible as many as opposed to unstructured and open-ended ones for uniformity of results and ease of analysis.

    • Avoid questions that are redundant or have obvious answers.

    • Avoid loaded or biased questions by field testing and involving others in the wording process.

    • Keep the final product as brief, simple, clear as possible.

    • Think out the analysis needs to insure the clarity and comprehensiveness of the instrument.


    Limitations of the survey method

    • May only tap respondents who are accessible and cooperative.

    • Surveys arouse “response sets” such as acquiescence or a proneness to agree with positive statements or questions.

    • Over-rater or under-rater bias - the tendency for some respondents to give consistently high or low ratings.


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