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The Possibilities of F air Trade : Towards a Taxonomy of Fairly Traded Clothing Organisations. Paper presented to the 13 th International Greening of Industry Network Conference 2006. Kellie Dalton & Pierre McDonagh. Business School. Research Area.

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The Possibilities of Fair Trade: Towards a Taxonomy of Fairly Traded Clothing Organisations

Paper presented to the 13th International Greening of

Industry Network Conference 2006

Kellie Dalton & Pierre McDonagh

Business School


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Research Area

What constitutes the dynamic of a Fair Trade clothing organisation?

We offer this taxonomy as a first step in answering this question


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Business Ethics and Ethical Fashion

  • Roots of ecological accountability in the clothing industry

  • Oxymornons??

  • Frameworks of CSR

  • Opportunities for alleviating the ecological crisis


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Fashion & Apparel Sector

  • Towards a taxonomy of ethical/fairtradeclothingorganisations

  • Green management

    • Drumwrights (1994)Four Categories

      • Founders, Symbolism, Opportune, Restraint


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FAIRTRADE

Certified/ Organic Cotton/Alternative Textile/Chemical-Free Dyes/ Sweatshop Free Labour/Animal Cruelty Free/Renewable Energy/Recyclable Packaging/ Reinvestment back into communities/ minimised transport

Drumwrights Categories:

Symbolism

Opportune

Restraint

Drumwrights Categories:

Founders

Fairtrade Certified

Clothing

Organisation

Mainstream

Clothing

Organisation

(M.C.O)

Fig. 2 Taxonomy of Ethical/Fairtrade Clothing Organisations


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Explanation of the Taxonomy

  • Animal Cruelty-Free

  • Recycled(second-hand clothing (including purchases on Ebay), charity shops, swap shops, vintage clothing and clothing made from recycled material)

  • Chemical-Free/Natural Dyes

  • ECO-Labels

  • Alternative Textiles/Sustainable Fabrics


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Explanation of the Taxonomy

  • Organic Textiles

  • Sweatshop-Free Labour

  • Labour Standards

  • Ethical/Fair-Made/Fair trade (not certified)

  • Fairtrade Certified

  • Others


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FAIRTRADE

Certified/ Organic Cotton/Alternative Textile/Chemical-Free Dyes/ Sweatshop Free Labour/Animal Cruelty Free/Renewable Energy/Recyclable Packaging/ Reinvestment back into communities/ minimised transport

LABOUR STANDARDS:

Ethical Trade

Initiative (ETI)

SA8000

Worldwide Responsible

Apparel Production (WRAP)

Fair Labour Association (FLA)

SEDEX

UN Global Compact

ILO Standard

Organic

Certification:

Cotton

Linen

Cord

Wool

Hemp

Skins

Leather

M.C.O

with

Charity

Donation/

Reinvestment of Profit

Product

Offering

M.C.O

with

Organic

Cotton

Product

Offering

M.C.O

with

Fairtrade

Certified

Product

Offering

ALTERNATIVE

TEXTILES:

Hemp

Bamboo

Sugar Cane

PCD

Eco-friendly Silk

(Kalahari) Wild Silk

Ingeo (corn-based)

Merino Wool

PCR Polyester

M.C.O

with

Alternative

Textile

Product

Offering

Sweatshop

Free

Labour

M.C.O

with

Re-Create/

Recycled

Product

Offering

M.C.O

with

Labour

Standard

Product

Offering

FAIRTRADE

Not

Certified

(combination

of ethical labour

& environmental

operations)

Fairtrade Certified

Clothing

Organisation

Mainstream

Clothing

Organisation

(M.C.O)

Fig. 2 Taxonomy of Ethical/Fairtrade Clothing Organisations


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FAIRTRADE

Certified/ Organic Cotton/Alternative Textile/Chemical-Free Dyes/ Sweatshop Free Labour/Animal Cruelty Free/Renewable Energy/Recyclable Packaging/ Reinvestment back into communities/ minimised transport

Organic

Certification:

EDUN

Howies

Katharine Hamnett

Linda Loudermilk

Loomstate

Noir

H&M

Jerrrey Chow

M&S

Nike

Oasis

Paul Smith

Proenza Schouler

Sainsburys

(RED)™ Products

Converse

GAP

Armani

1% for the Planet

Patagonia

LABOUR STANDARDS:

Katharine Hamnett

EDUN

Loomstate

Noir

M&S

ALTERNATIVE

TEXTILES:

Bamboosa

Deborah Milner

EDUN

Katharine Hamnett

Linda Loudermilk

Noir

Sweatshop

Free

Labour:

American

Apparel

Deborah Lindquist

Howies

Linda Loudermilk

Armani

Heatherette

H&M

Patagonia

Topshop

Urban

Outfitters

Adidas

Armani

Converse

Diane von

Furstenburg

Imitation

of Christ

Nike

Oscar de la Renta

Equop

Funky Gandhi

Ideo

THTC

Tonic t-shirts

Bishopston Trading

Epona

Gossypium

Hug

People Tree

Traidcraft

Debenehams

Gap

Levis

M&S

New Look

Primark

Mainstream

Clothing

Organisation

(M.C.O)

Fig. 2 Taxonomy of Ethical/Fairtrade Clothing Organisations


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Fair Trade Disclosure

  • Critical Education

  • Theory of Sustainable Communication

  • Insights from an operational standpoint


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Practical Application of Taxonomy

  • Helps understand sectoral position on Fairtrade

  • Taxonomy serves as a communication tool

  • Real solutions based on current market activity

  • Integration of CSR policies and practices into fashion & apparelorganisational strategy


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Future Research

  • Examine aesthetic of fashion done ethically

  • ‘Fast’ fashion to ‘slow’ fashion

  • Stamina for consistency and growth in high-street retail

  • CSR in high fashion

  • Fashionable ethics v’s Ethical fashion?



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Category of Organisation

Definition of Category

Type 1: Founder’s Ideals

An extension of the founders ideals and values

Type 2: Symbolism

Being socially responsible stemmed from managements

recognition that socially responsible behaviour was

inextricably linked to the company’s successes and to

discouraging further regulation that would alter the industry’s structure

Type 3: Opportune

Motivated by a compelling competitive advantage unrelated to social responsibility

Type 4: Restraint

Do not have a deliberate strategy of socially responsible buying. Socially responsible buying has non-negligible costs here

Categories of organisations involved in Socially Responsible Organisational Buying (Source: Drumwright, 1994)


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