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Mobility Management in Low Carbon Cities. ECOMM Conference Graz, Austria 6 May 2010. Arjen Jaarsma and Fadiah Achmadi. CONTENTS Low carbon cities Cities on the road to sustainabiliy (Amsterdam and Masdar City) Mobility Management in Amsterdam (conventional approach)

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Mobility Managementin Low Carbon Cities

ECOMM Conference

Graz, Austria

6 May 2010

Arjen Jaarsma and Fadiah Achmadi

www.balancia.com


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  • CONTENTS

    • Low carbon cities

    • Cities on the road to sustainabiliy (Amsterdam and Masdar City)

    • Mobility Management in Amsterdam (conventional approach)

    • Development of new MM approach for low carbon cities (Masdar City)

    • Conclusions

www.balancia.com


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  • LOW CARBON CITIES

    • Low carbon city = city with zero (or low) CO2 emissions.

    • Three main producers of CO2 in cities:

    • Buildings (housing, working)

    • Hard infrastructure (energy delivery, waste management, water supply, sewage, etc.)

    • Mobility of persons and goods (traffic)

www.balancia.com


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CDM as a CO2 calculation method

  • CDM = Clean Development Mechanism under Kyoto protocol

  • Crucial feature in CDM  carbon project (CO2 reduction through renewable energy and energy efficiency).

  • Two transportation systems with CDM accreditation:

    TransMilenio Bogotá& Metrobus Mexico City

     CO2 credit for sustainable transport system

     calculation method is very difficult and costly

    We expect that calculating a city’s reduction of CO2 emissions

    (for transport) will be very important in the next decades!

www.balancia.com


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  • CITIES ON THE ROAD TO SUSTAINABILITY

    • Amsterdam (the Netherlands) – solar energy / cycling / electric vehicles

    • Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city (China) – new planned city with 90% Public Transport +cycling

    • Masdar City (UAE) – new planned city, the low carbon city of the future!

Amsterdam vs Masdar City

(old city) (new city)

www.balancia.com


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Amsterdam

  • one of the most bicycle-friendly large cities in the world

  • a centre of bicycle culture with good cycling facilities

  • 600.000 bicycles for 750.000 residents

  • Amsterdam aims for 100% sustainable traffic by 2040  200.000 electric vehicles on the road

  • Amsterdam also plans for solar panels on (all) roofs in the city

www.balancia.com


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Masdar City

  • Twin city of Abu Dhabi

    (United Arab Emirates)

  • the city will rely entirely on solar energy and other renewable energy sources

  • Aims to be zero waste, zero carbon and fossil fuel free

  • The 1st large scale zero emission transport system

  • Maximum 250 meters walking distance to PT stops

www.balancia.com


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Masdar City

  • The construction of the city is ongoing.

  • The city will have:

  • 40.000 inhabitants

  • 70.000 workers

  • Personal Rapid Transit (PRT).

  • Light rail (LiRa).

  • connection to Abu Dhabi

  • metro system

www.balancia.com


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Mobility Management Measures

Source: UN Habitat and GTZ

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MM measures in Amsterdam

Strategies for Non-Motorised Modes  cycling policy

www.balancia.com


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MM measures in Amsterdam

Parking pricing  off- and on-street parking

www.balancia.com


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MM measures in Masdar City

This city is developed based on 10 principles (pillars) of sustainability (One Planet Living)

Pillar 3  Travel by car and airplane is contributing to climate change, air and noise pollution, and congestion.

www.balancia.com


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Our challenge for this presentation:

In which ways the conventional measures are / can be applied in Masdar City?

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1. Integration of land use and transport planning

  • Masdar City is a brand new city which is built with the main purpose to be the first zero carbon city in the world.

  • The land use is planned coherently with the transport planning (a wall around the city / green zones / high building densities around PT stations).

www.balancia.com


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2. Strategies for Non Motorised Modes (1)

  • Urban environment made for

  • people, not for cars.

  • Shaded walkways

  • Cycling facilities ?

www.balancia.com


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2. Strategies for Non Motorised Modes (2)

  • The only motorised modes in the city are Personal Rapid Transit, Light Rail Transit, and metro.

  • No private cars allowed in the city.

  • Stops are accessible by

  • maximum 250 meters walking.

www.balancia.com


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3. Physical restraint measures

The city is planned to completely restrict cars inside the city

 narrow streets + parking at the edge of the city

www.balancia.com


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4. Road pricing

  • Cars are not allowed in the city  How to avoid a situation where many cars are coming and parking at the edge of the city?

  • Road pricing might be applicable for the access roads to the P+R’s and parking garages at the edge of the city

  • Road pricing:

  • eliminates the number of parked cars at the parking areas outside the city wall

  • increases the possibility of more people using metro and LiRa to access the Masdar city

  • expected outcome: the low carbon area is not limited only in the city but also on a certain distance outside the city.

www.balancia.com


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5. Regulation of parking supply

  • In the current plans for Masdar City, parking will be supplied at the edge of the city (probably in multi storey parking buildings).

  • In our view: parking could be regulated in Masdar City to enhance sustainability of the city, by e.g.

    • Several privileges for electric / clean cars (e.g. parking next to the PRT / PT stop)

    • Enough parking supply near PT stops just outside Masdar city (P+R) – differentiating parking fees to regulate supply and demand

  • Consider private car usage for the inhabitants of Masdar City as an adjacent mode of transport (‘’when it is not convenient to use public transport or to walk”)

    • Provide attractive shared car schemes

www.balancia.com


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6. Public awareness campaigns

  • Knowledge dissemination about sustainability to the inhabitants is started at basic school to spread the awareness over.

  • Masdar Institute will be the leading institution and the knowledge center of sustainability

www.balancia.com


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7. Promotion of MM in companies

  • Masdar City will be home to 1500 companies.

  • At the early stage, it is of importance to develop a cooperation scheme with the companies to promote sustainable mobility.

  • Incentives can be introduced to encourage the companies to apply for example flexible working hours, telecommuting, dedicated (semi) public transport for employees, etc.

www.balancia.com


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The new approach of Mobility Management

  • Low carbon cities like Masdar City have good supply of public transport and a good built environment.

  • It is also important to influence the life style of the inhabitants

  • The new approach of mobility management:

www.balancia.com


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Conclusions

  • Masdar City will become a trend setter of a low carbon city and a knowledge centre referred by the next sustainable cities.

  • Masdar City as a low carbon city has a very strong focus on land use planning + supply of transport modes.

  • The Conventional MM is based on cities built for cars (and manage the demand).

  • For Masdar City a new form of MM has to be developed to influence the life style.

  • Implementation of MM in a new city is more effective and efficient because the behavior of the inhabitants is shaped from the initial phase.

  • Evaluation of MM measures by calculating CO2 emissions of low carbon city and its inhabitants is extremely important

www.balancia.com


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