Marcia Rioux Professor & Graduate Program Director, M.A., PhD (Critical Disability Studies) York University, Toronto Canada mrioux@yorku drpi@yorku - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Marcia Rioux Professor & Graduate Program Director, M.A., PhD (Critical Disability Studies) York University, Toronto Canada

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Marcia Rioux Professor & Graduate Program Director, M.A., PhD (Critical Disability Studies) York University, Toronto Canada mrioux@yorku drpi@yorku

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Marcia Rioux

Professor & Graduate Program Director, M.A., PhD (Critical Disability Studies)

York University, Toronto Canada

D.R.P.I. Session Rehabilitation International World CongressAugust, 2008Disability Rights Promotion International: A Holistic Approach to Monitoring the Human Rights of People with Disabilities in the Global World

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“ In all societies of the world there are obstacles preventing persons with disabilities from exercising their rights and freedoms, and making it difficult for them to participate fully in the activities of their societies.”

BengtLindqvist (U.N. Special Rapporteur on Disability (1994-2002)

EU Conference on Disability, November 2006

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Government policies, programs and constitutional guarantees and…

The realities for people with disabilities who continue to live without their human rights.

Holistic Monitoring Builds in a way to measure the Gap

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U.N. Special Rapporteur Recommends Twin-Track Approach

“ Mainstreaming and a convention should be seen as complementary approaches and a ‘twin-track’ approach should be applied in the field of human rights and disabled persons.”

Bengt Lindqvist

U.N. Special Rapporteur on Disability (1994-2002)

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“Almåsa Seminar”November 2000: International Seminar

“Let the World Know”

recommends establishing an international disability rights monitoring system

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DRPI is a collaborative project working to establish a comprehensive, sustainable international system to monitor human rights of people with disabilities.

Disability Rights Promotion International

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Human Rights Principles

  • Dignity

  • Autonomy

  • Non-discrimination & Equality

  • Participation, Inclusion & Accessibility

  • Respect for difference

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Addressing Disability Discrimination Worldwide

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What is monitoring?

  • The collection, verification and use of information to address human rights problems;

  • Involves researching, gathering, analysing, and reporting information;

  • With the purpose of identifying human rights abuses and violations and support efforts to remedy them;

  • Monitoring is intended to bring about social change: recommendations for law and policy development

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Monitoring is an Empowering Activity

  • Provides a voice to marginalized people;

  • Enhances public awareness by documenting abuses and violations;

  • Reinforces a collective identity among persons with disabilities;

  • Supports efforts to achieve social justice

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Monitoring is ……

measuring progress toward justice for people with disabilities.

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DRPI Monitors Disability Discrimination Worldwide

  • Africa

  • South America

  • Asia

  • North America

  • North America

  • Asia

South America


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DRPI Guiding Principles

  • Leading role of People with Disabilities & their Organizations

  • Sustainability and Capacity Building

  • Cross-Disability Involvement

  • Holistic Monitoring: Integrating 3 monitoring information from 3 areas

  • Engagement with Multi-Sectoral Organizations

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Holistic Approach to Disability Rights Monitoring

Holistic approach examines 3 monitoring areas providing a broad picture of human rights situation of people with disabilities.

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1. Monitoring Systems

  • Fact finding about government laws, policies, programs and legal cases

    • Legal Education & Research

    • National Human Rights Cases

    • Strategic Disability Rights Litigation

  • On-going systemic monitoring in Australia, Bolivia, Canada, India, Kenya, U.S.A.

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    Monitoring Systems

    • Places individual stories in context;

    • Involves the investigation of the laws, policies and programs affecting people with disabilities in a particular jurisdiction;

    • Serves to determine whether legislative frameworks in place fail to respect and protect the human rights of disabled people, or even violate them by containing discriminatory dispositions

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    Monitoring Systems

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    DRPI Law and Policy Monitoring Template

    • Principles and Concepts

    • Right to Access to Justice

    • Rights to Information and Communication

    • Rights to Privacy and Family Life

    • Rights to Independent Living and Participation

    • Right to Education

    • Rights to Income Security and Support Services

    • Rights to Health, Habilitation and Rehabilitation

    • Right to Work

    Monitoring Systems

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    DRPI Law and Policy Monitoring Template

    Monitoring Systems

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    Partners in Monitoring Systems

    Human Rights Organizations:

    • Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (Geneva)

    • International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) (Geneva)

    • Interights (England)

    • Raoul Wallenberg Institute of Human Rights &

      Humanitarian Law (Sweden)

      National Human Rights Institutions:

    • Asia-Pacific Forum of National Human Rights Institutions

    • Canadian Human Rights Commission

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    Partners in Monitoring Systems: Canada

    Government Departments & Agencies:

    • ARCH – Legal Resource Centre for People withDisabilities (Canada)

    • Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Rehabilitationand Social Integration (Canada)

    • Office des personnes handicapées du Québec –Government of Quebec (Canada)

    • Office for Disability Issues – Government of Canada

    • Statistics Canada

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    2. Monitoring Individual Experiences

    Fact-finding about peoples’ actual situations in their communities.

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    Disability and Human Rights Seminar, Nairobi, Kenya

    Involving representatives from 78Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Kenya, Morocco, Switzerland

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    Monitoring Individual Experiences:

    • To document individual experiences of exercise and denial of human rights;

    • The aggregate outcome of individual monitoring can reveal broader patterns of discrimination;

    • Individual interviews;

    • Monitors are persons with disabilities.

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    Monitoring Individual Experiences

    • The Interview Guide covers:

      • Socio-demographic variables (e.g. age, sex, type of disability, type of household, proximity of infrastructures in the community,..)

      • Experiences of access to, or denial of, human rights basic principles, and how interviewees dealt with them

  • Qualitative analysis of data on the basis of the DRPI coding scheme and supported by DRPI technical manuals

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    Monitoring Individual Experiences

    Excerpt from the D.R.P.I. Interview Guide

    [ Dignity ]

    HOW did this situation make you feel and WHY? (For example, did you feel respected/not respected, ignored/cared for, worthy/unworthy?)

    WHAT made you feel that way?

    WHY do you think people treated you that way?

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    Monitoring Individual Experiences

    • Reporting: an excerpt from State of Disabled Peoples Rights in Kenya, 2007:

      “[the research] clearly indicates that experiences of oppression, discrimination and violation of basic human rights pervade the lives of many disabled people in Kenya. As it emerged from the stories gathered, most people with disabilities, regardless of their age, gender, where they live or their disability type, are prevented from making decisions on issues that affect their lives. (…) They face prejudice and negative stereotypes, and are excluded in a multitude of ways from their communities and mainstream society. Viewed as a burden and a curse to their families, they are regarded as second class citizens. Their dignity, as members of the human family, is seriously affected.”

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    Disability and Human Rights Seminar Nairobi, Kenya

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    Technical Skills

    Learning How to Monitor:

    • Obtaining consent

    • Interviewing techniques

    • Getting all the facts

    • Snowball sampling

    • Taking notes & recording

    • Maintaining confidentiality

    Monitoring Individual Experiences

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    Essential Principles

    • All reporting documents and practices must be user-friendly.

    • Involvement of people with disabilities is necessary and essential.

    Monitoring Individual Experiences

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    Monitoring in Teams of People with Disabilities

    • Builds solidarity

    • Builds capacity

    • Fosters sustainability

    Monitoring Individual Experiences

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    Lake Nakuru National Park, Kenya

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    DRPI – KENYAIndividual Disability Rights Monitor Training February, 2006

    Monitoring Sites:

    • Nairobi (urban)

    • Rift Valley (urban & rural)

    • Nyanza (urban & rural)

    Monitoring Individual Experiences

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    • African Union of the Blind (AFUB)

    • Kenya Union of the Blind (KUB)

    • Kenya Centre for Disability Rights Education & Advocacy (CREAD)

    • University of Nairobi, Faculty of Law

    • Swedish Association of the Visually Impaired (SRF)

    Monitoring Individual Experiences

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    DRPI – CAMEROONIndividual Disability Rights Monitor Training October, 2006

    Monitoring Sites:

    • Yaoundé (urban)

    • Menoua Division (rural)

    • Bamenda (urban)

    Monitoring Individual Experiences

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    • African Union of the Blind

    • Cameroon National Association of the Blind

    • Cameroon National Association of Disabled Cameroon

    • National Association of the Deaf

    • Cameroon National Association of Lepers

    • Cameroon National Association of the Physically Disabled

    • Cameroon National Commission on Human Rights and Freedoms

    Monitoring Individual Experiences

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    Countryside near Nairobi

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    Workshop on Understanding Human Rights of Persons with Disabilities


    September, 2006

    Monitoring Individual Experiences

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    DRPI - INDIAIndividual Disability Rights Monitor Training May, 2007

    Monitoring Sites:

    • Hyderabad (urban)

    • Kurnool (town)

    • Villages in Visakhapatnam District (rural)

      • Thokuru Village (Ananthagiri Mandal)

      • Konapuram (Ananthagiri Mandal)

      • Kondiva (Ananthagiri Mandal)

      • Malchingaram (Araku Mandal)

    Monitoring Individual Experiences

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    • Swadhikaar Center for Disabilities Information, Research & Resource Development

    • Asmita Resource Centre for Women

    • NALSAR School of Law

    • National Institute for Mental Handicap

    • Leonard Cheshire International South-Asia Region

    • AP State Legal Services Authority

    Monitoring Individual Experiences

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    DRPI BoliviaIndividual Disability Rights Monitor Training July, 2008

    Monitoring Sites:

    • Santa Cruz (urban)

    • Provincia Obispo Santistevan (rural)

    • La Paz (urban)

    • Provincia El Alto (rural)

    Monitoring Individual Experiences

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    DRPI Bolivia


    • Confederación Boliviana de Personas con Discapacidad

    • Federación Cruceña de Personas con Discapacidad (FECRUPDI) - Carlos Loli Cortez Vasquez

    • Federación Departamental de Personas con Discapacidad (FEDEPDI) -Teclo Gonzales Puquimia

    Monitoring Individual Experiences

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    • national & local organizations of people with disabilities

    • individual disability rights experts (academics, independent researchers, lawyers)

    • human rights NGOs

    • universities

    • government offices for disability issues

    • disability & human rights research institutes

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    Newfoundland, Canada

    Quebec City, Canada

    Toronto, Canada

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    Amnesty International

    ARCH - A legal resource centre for persons with disabilities

    Canadian Abilities Foundation

    Canadian Association of Independent Living Centres

    Canadian Human Rights Commission

    Centre interdiscipinaire de recherche en réadaptation et intégration sociale

    Council of Canadians with Disabilities

    DisAbled Women's Network Ontario


    Institute for Social Research, York University

    Office des personne handicapées du Québec

    Office for Disability Issues, Government of Canada

    Raoul Wallenberg Institute of Human Rights & Humanitarian Law

    Université de Laval

    University of Victoria

    York University

    DRPI – CANADAOrganizational Partners:

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    3. Monitoring Societal Attitudes

    Fact finding about societal attitudes to disability and people with disabilities by monitoring media coverage and depiction.

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    • reflects & influences public opinion is a proxy for societal attitudes

      Media can:

    • perpetuate negative myths & stereotypes

      But media can also:

    • be a catalyst for positive social change

    Monitoring Societal Attitudes

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    Media Monitoring

    • Monitoring media coverage and depiction of disability

    • Quantitative analysis: e.g. number and format of publications per day, their placement (what section, where in section), types of disability covered and sources used;

    • Qualitative analysis: content analysis and critical discourse analysis (e.g. language and presence of stereotypes, way sources are used, visual images used, how and why)

      Monitoring Societal Attitudes

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    Media Monitoring

    • gather 1000s of disability-related media reports from the internet including:

      • radio and television broadcasts

      • newspaper, magazine and internet articles

  • use neural networks, content analysis and critical discourse analysis to conduct quantitative and qualitative analyses of the stories.

  • analyses conducted by collaborative research team from disability community, media and academia

  • Monitoring Societal Attitudes

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    & Panel of experts (PE)


    (association of terms)

    Search string

    Neural networks

    PE feedback

    refine search string

    New search string

    Media sample

    Content analysis

    PE and disability community feedback

    General picture

    Detect patterns

    Discourse analysis

    Media Monitoring Methodology Loop

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    • Researchers from University of Buffalo, U.S.A. and Umeå University, Sweden and York University, Canada

    • International Panel of Experts (Canada, Costa Rica, India, Kenya, New Zealand, Sweden and U.S.A.)

    Monitoring Societal Attitudes

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    Holistic Approach to Disability Rights Monitoring

    Holistic approach examines 3 monitoring areas providing a broad picture of human rights situation of people with disabilities.

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    Results of Holistic Monitoring

    • Individual Country Reports

    • Identification of gaps among individual experiences, government promises and societal dialogue

    • Teams of people with disabilities ready to monitor rights on an on-going basis

    • International comparative data

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    THANK YOU to the following Funders:

    • Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida)

    • Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC) Community-University Research Alliance (CURA)

    • SSHRC (International Opportunities Fund)

    • Heritage Canada

    • Australian Research Council

    • Swedish Association of the Visually Impaired (SRF)

    • York University

    • University of Buffalo

    • Laval University

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