Introduction to Medicinal Chemistry - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Introduction to medicinal chemistry l.jpg
Download
1 / 12

Introduction to Medicinal Chemistry. Chapter 1 Part 1. What is medicinal chemistry?. The science that deals with the discovery or design of new therapeutic chemicals and the development of these chemicals into useful medicine. What is “medicine”?. Drugs, pharmaceutics Media distinction

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.

Download Presentation

Introduction to Medicinal Chemistry

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Introduction to medicinal chemistry l.jpg

Introduction to Medicinal Chemistry

Chapter 1 Part 1


What is medicinal chemistry l.jpg

What is medicinal chemistry?

  • The science that deals with the discovery or design of new therapeutic chemicals and the development of these chemicals into useful medicine


What is medicine l.jpg

What is “medicine”?

  • Drugs, pharmaceutics

    • Media distinction

  • A compound that interacts with a biological system, and produces a biological response (ideally desired and positive)


Good vs bad drugs l.jpg

“Good” vs. “Bad” Drugs

  • No medicine has only benefits or drawbacks

  • Morphine

    • Excellent analgesic

    • Addictive, tolerance

    • Respiratory depression

  • Barbiturates

    • Depressants, sedatives, anesthetics

    • Surgery

    • Overdoses fatal (Pearl Harbor)


Heroin l.jpg

Heroin

  • Known clinically as Diamorphine

  • One of the best painkillers

  • 1898: on market

  • 1903: withdrawn (addictive properties)

  • Today: still used


Aspirin l.jpg

Aspirin

  • 400 BC: Hippocrates

    • Chew bark of willow tree for pain (childbirth and eye infections)

  • Active component of willow bark = salicin


Cocaine l.jpg

Cocaine

  • South American coca bush

    • Plant used as a stimulant, mystical/religious reasons

  • Isolated 1880’s

    • Anesthetic in dentistry

  • Addiction: Freud

    • Used for depression; other drug addiction

  • Drug development based on structure

    • Procaine (Novocain)


Everyday drugs l.jpg

Everyday drugs

  • Still produce a response; many are addictive

  • Caffeine

  • Sugar

  • Nicotine

  • Alcohol

  • Food additives

  • Vitamins

  • Herbs

    • Basil: 50 potential carcinogens

    • Cultural aspects


Good vs bad drugs9 l.jpg

“Good” vs. “Bad” Drugs

  • Depends on:

    • Dosage

      • Almost anything in excess will be toxic

    • Chronic exposure

  • Measure of safety of drug = therapeutic index


Therapeutic index l.jpg

Therapeutic index

  • Measure of a drug’s beneficial effects at low dose vs. harmful effects at high dose

  • Comparison of dose levels which lead to toxic effects to dose levels which lead to maximum therapeutic effects

  • High therapeutic index = large margin of safety

    • Marijuana = 1000

    • Alcohol = 10

    • Does not take chronic use into account


Classification of drugs l.jpg

Classification of drugs

  • Four main groups (overlap)

    1. By pharmacological effects

    • Analgesics, anti-asthmatics, antipsychotics, etc.

    • Large and varied assortment of drugs

    • Many mechanisms of action

      2.By chemical structure

    • Penicillins, steroids

    • Common skeleton

    • Functions may be similar or different


Classification of drugs12 l.jpg

Classification of drugs

3. By target system

  • Antihistamines

  • Affect a target system (synthesis, release, receptor)

  • Variety of structures due to large number of stages in system

    4. By target molecule or site of action on target

  • Very specific classification

  • Expect structural similarity and common mechanism

  • Easy to classify compounds too narrowly and miss possible positive side effects (new uses for the compound)

    • Zyban

    • Viagra


  • Login