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Exploring Ecotourism: The who, what, why, and how. Christine Denny Pandion Systems, Inc. www.pandionsystems.com Taylor V. Stein University of Florida School of Forest Resources and Conservation. What is Ecotourism?. Relatively unknown … industry, business, practice, concept,

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Exploring Ecotourism: The who, what, why, and how

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Exploring ecotourism the who what why and how l.jpg
Exploring Ecotourism: The who, what, why, and how

Christine Denny

Pandion Systems, Inc.

www.pandionsystems.com

Taylor V. Stein

University of Florida

School of Forest Resources and Conservation


What is ecotourism l.jpg
What is Ecotourism?

  • Relatively unknown … industry,

    • business,

    • practice,

    • concept,

    • phenomenon?????

  • What do you think it is?

©Pandion Systems, Inc. 2004


Official definition of ecotourism l.jpg
“Official” Definition of Ecotourism:

“Ecotourism is responsible travel to natural areas which conserves the environment and improves the welfare of local people.”

- The Ecotourism Society

©Pandion Systems, Inc. 2004


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Ecotourism as a market segment:

Source: World Tourism Organization 2001

©Pandion Systems, Inc. 2004


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Ecotourism

Local People

Visitors

Environment

Source: Taylor Stein 2003

©Pandion Systems, Inc. 2004


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Ecotourism Provides…

  • Benefits to Local People

  • Benefits to the Environment

  • Benefits to Visitors

©Pandion Systems, Inc. 2004


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Benefits of Nature-Based Recreation

  • Nature-based recreation products?

  • Understood what other natural resource professionals produced.

©Pandion Systems, Inc. 2004


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Benefit

  • An improved condition (e.g., a gain) of an individual or a group of individuals or another entity (e.g., environment),

  • The prevention of an unwanted condition.

  • A desired condition.

(Driver , 1994)

©Pandion Systems, Inc. 2004


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Types of Benefits

  • Personal

    • Psychological

    • Physiological

  • Social

  • Economic

  • Environmental

Source: Taylor Stein 2003

©Pandion Systems, Inc. 2004


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What kinds of businesses fall into the ecotourism category?

  • Guided nature tours- canoeing, hiking, birdwatching

  • Cultural tours- historical, archeological

  • Farms (Agritourism)- livestock, herbs, organic

©Pandion Systems, Inc. 2004


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Who else benefits from ecotourists?

  • Outfitters- birding store, hiking gear, camping

  • Restaurants- local cuisine

  • Craft sales- pottery, clothing, local artwork

  • Bed and Breakfasts

  • Others?

©Pandion Systems, Inc. 2004


From a functional viewpoint ecotourism is l.jpg
From a functional viewpoint ecotourism is:

  • Mostly individual or small-scale tourism (tour groups <25 and hotels with <100 beds

  • Operated by small and medium sized companies in natural areas

  • Concentrates on leading and accommodating small groups in natural areas in an educational manner

    Source: United Nations Environment Programme 2001

©Pandion Systems, Inc. 2004


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Who are these people???

  • Age: 35-54 years old

  • Gender: 50% female, 50% male

  • Education: 82% college grads

Information from Wight 1996 and TIES 2000

©Pandion Systems, Inc. 2004


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Who are these people?

Party composition:

  • 60% travel as a couple

  • 15% travel with families

  • 13% travel alone

Information from Wight 1996 and TIES 2000

©Pandion Systems, Inc. 2004


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Where do they stay?

Ecotourists are more likely to select from a range of intimate, adventure-type accommodations such as cabins, lodges/inns, camping, bed and breakfasts, or ranches.

Information from Wight 1996 and TIES 2000

©Pandion Systems, Inc. 2004


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What do they spend?

Expenditure: $1000-$2000+/trip

Information from Wight 1996 and TIES 2000

©Pandion Systems, Inc. 2004


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The Green Premium

  • 83% of US travelers are inclined to support “green” travel companies and are willing to spend on average 6.2% more for travel services and products provided by environmentally responsible travel suppliers.

    Source: The Travel Industry Association of America (1997)


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How long do they stay?

  • Trip length: 8-14 days

Information from Wight 1996 and TIES 2000


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When do they travel?

North American ecotourists prefer to travel in the summer, however experienced ecotourists will travel during the off season.

Information from Wight 1996 and TIES 2000


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What do they want?

  • Wilderness setting

  • Wildlife viewing

  • Hiking/trekking

Information from Wight 1996 and TIES 2000


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Overall, ecotourism trends suggest that the ecotourist is no longer representative of a small segment of the population. As ecotourism becomes more mainstream and the term more widely used, ecotourism is drawing a diverse audience. This opens up many opportunities to develop nature-based tourism for a broad audience.


Why do they do it l.jpg
Why do they do it? longer representative of a small segment of the population. As ecotourism becomes more mainstream and the term more widely used, ecotourism is drawing a diverse audience. This opens up many opportunities to develop nature-based tourism for a broad audience.


Defining the ecotourist l.jpg
Defining the Ecotourist longer representative of a small segment of the population. As ecotourism becomes more mainstream and the term more widely used, ecotourism is drawing a diverse audience. This opens up many opportunities to develop nature-based tourism for a broad audience.

Backpackers?

Adventurers?

Families?

Foreign Visitors?

Hunters?

Seniors?

Bird Watchers?

©Pandion Systems, Inc. 2004


Recreation behavior l.jpg
Recreation Behavior longer representative of a small segment of the population. As ecotourism becomes more mainstream and the term more widely used, ecotourism is drawing a diverse audience. This opens up many opportunities to develop nature-based tourism for a broad audience.

  • What are recreationists’ desired benefits (motivations)?

  • How do motivations relate to setting and activities?

  • What are visitors’ attitudes toward:

    • Management

    • Policies

Source: Taylor Stein 2003

©Pandion Systems, Inc. 2004


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Psychology and Ecotourism Management longer representative of a small segment of the population. As ecotourism becomes more mainstream and the term more widely used, ecotourism is drawing a diverse audience. This opens up many opportunities to develop nature-based tourism for a broad audience.

  • Identifies definable market segments

    • Direct visitors to certain opportunities.

    • Provide alternative opportunities.

  • Aids in managing for social setting:

    • Conflicts

    • Crowding

Source: Taylor Stein 2003

©Pandion Systems, Inc. 2004


Motivations l.jpg
Motivations longer representative of a small segment of the population. As ecotourism becomes more mainstream and the term more widely used, ecotourism is drawing a diverse audience. This opens up many opportunities to develop nature-based tourism for a broad audience.

  • Achievement/Stimulation

  • Physical Rest

  • Teach/Lead Others

  • Risk Taking

  • Risk Reduction

  • Meet New People

  • Creativity

  • Nostalgia

  • Agreeable Temperatures

  • Enjoy Nature

  • Learn New Things

  • Family Relations

  • Reduce Tension

  • Escape Physical Stress

  • Share Similar Values

  • Independence

  • Introspection

  • Be with Considerate People

Source: Taylor Stein 2003

©Pandion Systems, Inc. 2004


How do you bring them in l.jpg
How do you bring them in? longer representative of a small segment of the population. As ecotourism becomes more mainstream and the term more widely used, ecotourism is drawing a diverse audience. This opens up many opportunities to develop nature-based tourism for a broad audience.

  • Marketing to the ecotourist

    • Remember they are different than other tourists

    • They want nature-oriented, smaller-scale settings and are willing to pay for it


How do you keep them l.jpg
How do you keep them? longer representative of a small segment of the population. As ecotourism becomes more mainstream and the term more widely used, ecotourism is drawing a diverse audience. This opens up many opportunities to develop nature-based tourism for a broad audience.

  • “Linking” ecotourism businesses to provide a diversity of experiences in an easy-to-access manner.

  • Training and education for ecotourism providers, managers, and community members so that visitors get a top-notch experience.

  • Example: Birder-friendly communities


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Example: Birding longer representative of a small segment of the population. As ecotourism becomes more mainstream and the term more widely used, ecotourism is drawing a diverse audience. This opens up many opportunities to develop nature-based tourism for a broad audience.

  • Two birding “hot spots” in southwestern Arizona attracted 38,000 “avitourists” in 1991, who in turn spent $1.6 million and generated $2.7 million in local economic output, sustaining 56 local jobs (Common Ground 1993).


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What are the impacts of ecotourism? longer representative of a small segment of the population. As ecotourism becomes more mainstream and the term more widely used, ecotourism is drawing a diverse audience. This opens up many opportunities to develop nature-based tourism for a broad audience.

  • To the resource?

  • To the community?

  • To the visitor?

©Pandion Systems, Inc. 2004


Impacts will occur l.jpg
Impacts will occur longer representative of a small segment of the population. As ecotourism becomes more mainstream and the term more widely used, ecotourism is drawing a diverse audience. This opens up many opportunities to develop nature-based tourism for a broad audience.

And they occur quickly.

©Pandion Systems, Inc. 2004


Vegetation cover loss l.jpg
Vegetation Cover Loss longer representative of a small segment of the population. As ecotourism becomes more mainstream and the term more widely used, ecotourism is drawing a diverse audience. This opens up many opportunities to develop nature-based tourism for a broad audience.


Slide33 l.jpg

Source: Taylor Stein 2003 longer representative of a small segment of the population. As ecotourism becomes more mainstream and the term more widely used, ecotourism is drawing a diverse audience. This opens up many opportunities to develop nature-based tourism for a broad audience.

©Pandion Systems, Inc. 2004


Social impacts l.jpg
Social Impacts longer representative of a small segment of the population. As ecotourism becomes more mainstream and the term more widely used, ecotourism is drawing a diverse audience. This opens up many opportunities to develop nature-based tourism for a broad audience.

  • Conflicts

  • Crowding

©Pandion Systems, Inc. 2004


Types of conflict l.jpg
Types of Conflict longer representative of a small segment of the population. As ecotourism becomes more mainstream and the term more widely used, ecotourism is drawing a diverse audience. This opens up many opportunities to develop nature-based tourism for a broad audience.

  • Outdoor recreation vs. other resource uses

  • Outdoor recreationists vs. resource managers

  • Interactivity conflict

  • Intra-activity conflict

Source: Taylor Stein 2003

©Pandion Systems, Inc. 2004


How do you control these impacts l.jpg
How do you control these impacts? longer representative of a small segment of the population. As ecotourism becomes more mainstream and the term more widely used, ecotourism is drawing a diverse audience. This opens up many opportunities to develop nature-based tourism for a broad audience.


Monitoring l.jpg
Monitoring longer representative of a small segment of the population. As ecotourism becomes more mainstream and the term more widely used, ecotourism is drawing a diverse audience. This opens up many opportunities to develop nature-based tourism for a broad audience.

Repetitive sampling of the same thing over time to document a change.

©Pandion Systems, Inc. 2004


Why monitor l.jpg
Why Monitor longer representative of a small segment of the population. As ecotourism becomes more mainstream and the term more widely used, ecotourism is drawing a diverse audience. This opens up many opportunities to develop nature-based tourism for a broad audience.

  • Predict future (identify patterns),

  • Identify potential problems,

  • Prove changes are occurring, and

  • Design higher quality trips.

Source: Taylor Stein 2003

©Pandion Systems, Inc. 2004


Planning l.jpg
Planning longer representative of a small segment of the population. As ecotourism becomes more mainstream and the term more widely used, ecotourism is drawing a diverse audience. This opens up many opportunities to develop nature-based tourism for a broad audience.

  • Think about the methods and consequences BEFORE you bring in the visitors- ecotourism is more than heads and beds.


Education l.jpg
Education longer representative of a small segment of the population. As ecotourism becomes more mainstream and the term more widely used, ecotourism is drawing a diverse audience. This opens up many opportunities to develop nature-based tourism for a broad audience.

  • Teaching decision makers about the potential benefits and impacts from ecotourism

  • Teaching operators about how to run a sustainable business while protecting the resource

  • Teaching community members how to welcome visitors and provide a positive experience

Example: Florida ecotourism training programs


Florida ecotourism training l.jpg
Florida ecotourism training: longer representative of a small segment of the population. As ecotourism becomes more mainstream and the term more widely used, ecotourism is drawing a diverse audience. This opens up many opportunities to develop nature-based tourism for a broad audience.

TOPICS TAUGHT:

  • Ecotourism in Florida

  • Resource sustainability and protection

  • Marketing, promotion, and partnerships

  • Basic business tips for current and future ecotour operators

  • Why people choose ecotourism

  • Interpretation- helping visitors feel a connection to the resource


This is perfect what can go wrong l.jpg
This is perfect… longer representative of a small segment of the population. As ecotourism becomes more mainstream and the term more widely used, ecotourism is drawing a diverse audience. This opens up many opportunities to develop nature-based tourism for a broad audience.what can go wrong?


Case study oceanville usa l.jpg
Case Study: longer representative of a small segment of the population. As ecotourism becomes more mainstream and the term more widely used, ecotourism is drawing a diverse audience. This opens up many opportunities to develop nature-based tourism for a broad audience.Oceanville, USA

  • Oceanville USA is a small town with a population of @ 9,000 people

  • The town is one of a few small towns that remain in this coastal region of the state.

  • Tourism to the area has increased 300% in the past 7 years.


Case study 1 oceanville usa l.jpg
Case Study 1: longer representative of a small segment of the population. As ecotourism becomes more mainstream and the term more widely used, ecotourism is drawing a diverse audience. This opens up many opportunities to develop nature-based tourism for a broad audience.Oceanville, USA

  • Visitors began coming to Oceanville after articles were published in national magazines touting it one of the “last great escapes.”

  • Local managers saw this as a potential boon for the local economy- commercial fishing was no longer a profitable enterprise and residents desperately needed another income source.


Case study 1 oceanville usa45 l.jpg
Case Study 1: longer representative of a small segment of the population. As ecotourism becomes more mainstream and the term more widely used, ecotourism is drawing a diverse audience. This opens up many opportunities to develop nature-based tourism for a broad audience.Oceanville, USA

  • Local managers began marketing the culture and nature of the area- Oceanville quickly became known as a town to visit to see “how life used to be.”

  • Ecotourism became the catch phrase for all businesses that sold nature and culture in some way.

  • Long-time residents began selling crafts, giving sightseeing tours, and opening up souvenir shops.


Case study 1 oceanville usa46 l.jpg
Case Study 1: longer representative of a small segment of the population. As ecotourism becomes more mainstream and the term more widely used, ecotourism is drawing a diverse audience. This opens up many opportunities to develop nature-based tourism for a broad audience.Oceanville, USA

  • Visitors flocked to the town to soak in the down-home flavor of the place.

  • They also visited the beaches and were thrilled that they could spend days at peace in such natural beauty (for low prices!).

  • Oceanville became known far and wide as a tourism destination.


Case study 1 oceanville usa47 l.jpg
Case Study 1: longer representative of a small segment of the population. As ecotourism becomes more mainstream and the term more widely used, ecotourism is drawing a diverse audience. This opens up many opportunities to develop nature-based tourism for a broad audience.Oceanville, USA

  • Oceanville’s success drew developers and investors to the area.

  • The local government saw this as another boon to the economy and welcomed the influx of money that came from building hotels, condos, and vacation homes.


Case study 1 oceanville usa48 l.jpg
Case Study 1: longer representative of a small segment of the population. As ecotourism becomes more mainstream and the term more widely used, ecotourism is drawing a diverse audience. This opens up many opportunities to develop nature-based tourism for a broad audience.Oceanville, USA

  • Within 10 years of its “discovery”, Oceanville looked nothing of its former self.

  • Most of the locals had moved away due to the lack of good paying jobs.

  • The beaches and green spaces that once attracted ecotourists were now built up into high rises, condos, and luxury beach homes.


Case study 1 oceanville usa49 l.jpg
Case Study 1: longer representative of a small segment of the population. As ecotourism becomes more mainstream and the term more widely used, ecotourism is drawing a diverse audience. This opens up many opportunities to develop nature-based tourism for a broad audience.Oceanville, USA

  • Although the economy in the area was strong, the majority of the money was controlled by a few large developers and business owners.

  • The visitor demographic to Oceanville changed and the nature and culture-oriented visitor no longer came.


Case study 1 oceanville usa50 l.jpg
Case Study 1: longer representative of a small segment of the population. As ecotourism becomes more mainstream and the term more widely used, ecotourism is drawing a diverse audience. This opens up many opportunities to develop nature-based tourism for a broad audience.Oceanville, USA

  • What went wrong?

  • How could this have been changed?

  • How could ecotourism have helped keep this community in the hands of its residents while still providing economic opportunities?


Ecotourism is l.jpg
Ecotourism is: longer representative of a small segment of the population. As ecotourism becomes more mainstream and the term more widely used, ecotourism is drawing a diverse audience. This opens up many opportunities to develop nature-based tourism for a broad audience.

  • “Responsible travel to natural areas which conserves the environment and improves the welfare of local people.”


Thank you for your time l.jpg
Thank you for your time. longer representative of a small segment of the population. As ecotourism becomes more mainstream and the term more widely used, ecotourism is drawing a diverse audience. This opens up many opportunities to develop nature-based tourism for a broad audience.

Christine Denny

Pandion Systems, Inc.

352-372-4747

cdenny@pandionsystems.com

www.pandionsystems.com

Pandion is environmental science, training, research, and education


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