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Cycling will improve environment and health. The Ecological Council and Thomas Krag Mobility Advice. Velo-city Dublin, 2005. Introduction. Report title: Cycling, exercise, environment and health. The Ecological Council and Thomas Krag Mobility Advice. Velo-city Dublin, 2005. Background.

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Cycling will improve environment and health

The Ecological Council andThomas Krag Mobility Advice

Velo-city Dublin, 2005


Introduction

Report title:

Cycling, exercise, environment and health

The Ecological Council andThomas Krag Mobility Advice

Velo-city Dublin, 2005


Background

Increasing concern about obesity and the risks associated with a sedentary lifestyle.

The Ecological Council andThomas Krag Mobility Advice

Velo-city Dublin, 2005


Approach taken

numerous reports on the health impact of physical inactivity studied

special look taken on studies involving bicycle use

further investigations made on linkages between cycling and physical activity

knowledge about the impact of air pollution on cyclists' health collected

overview made on the knowledge about traffic safety and cycling

basic knowledge about infrastructure and cycling collected

several reports and investigations about levers for bicycle use read

existing cost-benefit analysis of cycling, physical activity and health examined

a cost-benefit analysis of a potential Danish bicycle promotion scheme carried out

European cities or regions where cycling has been prioritised investigated

international targets for cycling studied

present and perspective cycling promotion policies in Denmark studied

The Ecological Council andThomas Krag Mobility Advice

Velo-city Dublin, 2005


Physical inactivity and health

Physical inactivity results in an increased risk of getting several diseases

Risk of the same diseases can be reduced by increasing the level of physical activity

The Ecological Council andThomas Krag Mobility Advice

Velo-city Dublin, 2005


Physical inactivity and health

The Ecological Council andThomas Krag Mobility Advice

Velo-city Dublin, 2005


Cycling and physical activity

Danish population study (adjusted for several factors):28% less mortality rate among people cycling to work.

Other studies:Cycling makes you feel healthier.

(Odense, 2004)

(Aarhus, 1996)

The Ecological Council andThomas Krag Mobility Advice

Velo-city Dublin, 2005


Cycling and physical activity

The Ecological Council andThomas Krag Mobility Advice

Velo-city Dublin, 2005


Cycling and air pollution

To conclude:

Air pollution is a problem, also for cyclists

– but it is no argument against cycling.

The Ecological Council andThomas Krag Mobility Advice

Velo-city Dublin, 2005


Safety and cycling

  • Is cycling dangerous?

  • Risk can be calculated in several ways:

  • injuries per km (big figure)

  • fatalities per km (smaller figure than for pedestrians)

  • fatalities per hour (figure comparable to car users)

The Ecological Council andThomas Krag Mobility Advice

Velo-city Dublin, 2005


Safety and cycling

  • Is cycling dangerous?

  • Risk:

  • injuries per km (big figure)

  • fatalities per km (smaller figure than for pedestrians)

  • fatalities per hour (figure comparable to car users)

The Ecological Council andThomas Krag Mobility Advice

Velo-city Dublin, 2005


Safety and cycling

  • Is cycling dangerous?

  • Risk:

  • injuries per km (big figure)

  • fatalities per km (smaller figure than for pedestrians)

  • fatalities per hour (figure comparable to car users)

The Ecological Council andThomas Krag Mobility Advice

Velo-city Dublin, 2005


Safety and cycling

The Ecological Council andThomas Krag Mobility Advice

Velo-city Dublin, 2005


Safety and cycling

(Netherlands)

The Ecological Council andThomas Krag Mobility Advice

Velo-city Dublin, 2005


Safety and cycling

(Copenhagen)

The Ecological Council andThomas Krag Mobility Advice

Velo-city Dublin, 2005


Cycling infrastructure

  • Cycle tracks are

  • very popular, since they make bicycle users feel safe

  • improving safety at high speed roads

The Ecological Council andThomas Krag Mobility Advice

Velo-city Dublin, 2005


Motives for bicycle use

Car ownership is a major demotivating factor.

The Ecological Council andThomas Krag Mobility Advice

Velo-city Dublin, 2005


Motives for bicycle use

Speed and exercise are the main reasons given for cycling to work

The Ecological Council andThomas Krag Mobility Advice

Velo-city Dublin, 2005


Motives for bicycle use

Distance (time)is the main reasons given for not cycling to work

The Ecological Council andThomas Krag Mobility Advice

Velo-city Dublin, 2005


Motives for bicycle use

Uneven roadsis felt to be the main inconve-nience for the bicycle users

The Ecological Council andThomas Krag Mobility Advice

Velo-city Dublin, 2005


Motives for bicycle use

Cycling performanceis underestimated by non-users

The Ecological Council andThomas Krag Mobility Advice

Velo-city Dublin, 2005


Motives for bicycle use

Campaigns do work- as for example a Danish bicycle to school campaign

The Ecological Council andThomas Krag Mobility Advice

Velo-city Dublin, 2005


Pricing health benefits

  • Employment aspect

  • The employer gains 3-400 Euro per year per physically active employee (North American asessments)

  • Productivity is raised 2-52% if the employee is physically active (WHO)

  • Treatment costs, length and quality of life aspect

  • Savings are 980 Euro per year per physically active (Norway, Saelensminde/TOI)

  • Savings are 564 Euro per year per physically active (Switzerland, Brian Martin)

  • Savings are 1,200 Euro per year per physically active (Finnish transport ministry cost-benefit guidelines)

The Ecological Council andThomas Krag Mobility Advice

Velo-city Dublin, 2005


Cost-benefit analysis

  • Cost-benefit analysis of a potential Danish promotion scheme

  • 50% more cycling and 30% more walking

  • target reached in 12 years

  • annual investment 20 million Euro

  • annual public health gain (after 12 years) 96 million Euro

  • less public income on public transport and less tax revenue on cars

  • overall present net value 3 billion Euro (50 year perspective)

The Ecological Council andThomas Krag Mobility Advice

Velo-city Dublin, 2005


Cost-benefit analysis

The Ecological Council andThomas Krag Mobility Advice

Velo-city Dublin, 2005


Cases from cities and regions

The Ecological Council andThomas Krag Mobility Advice

Velo-city Dublin, 2005


Cases from cities and regions

Health is of increasing importance. Persons (fiery souls) and long term planning are usually found.

The Ecological Council andThomas Krag Mobility Advice

Velo-city Dublin, 2005


International cycling targets

  • National cycling strategies are found in several countries

  • Cycling strategies usually include targets for increased cycling

  • Cycling targets are usually not met

  • Resources are often lacking

  • WHO can – with the 1999 London Charter on Transport, Environment and Health as the starting point – be regarded as working on an international cycling strategy.

The Ecological Council andThomas Krag Mobility Advice

Velo-city Dublin, 2005


Danish cycle promotion

  • Bicycling is seen as a normal activity

  • 12% of the 70,000 km road network is furnished with cycle tracks

  • Special funds for cycling infrastructure and cycling projects have been set aside nationally since the 1980s

  • No state funding, though, has been provided since 2001

The Ecological Council andThomas Krag Mobility Advice

Velo-city Dublin, 2005

The Ecological Council andThomas Krag Mobility Advice

Velo-city Dublin, 2005


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