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Community and Population Ecology. Chapter 6. Core Case Study: American Alligator. Highly adaptable Only natural predator is humans 1967 – endangered species list Successful environmental comeback Keystone species. American Alligator. Fig. 6-1, p. 105.

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Core case study american alligator l.jpg
Core Case Study: American Alligator

  • Highly adaptable

  • Only natural predator is humans

  • 1967 – endangered species list

  • Successful environmental comeback

  • Keystone species


American alligator l.jpg
American Alligator

Fig. 6-1, p. 105


6 1 how does species diversity affect the sustainability of a community l.jpg
6-1 How Does Species Diversity Affect the Sustainability of a Community?

  • Concept 6-1 Species diversity is a major component of biodiversity and tends to increase the sustainability of communities and ecosystems.


Species diversity l.jpg
Species Diversity a Community?

  • Species richness combined with species evenness

  • Niche structure

  • Varies with geographic location

  • Species richness declines towards poles


Sustainability and environmental change l.jpg
Sustainability and Environmental Change a Community?

  • Inertia or persistence

  • Constancy

  • Resilience


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Science Focus: Community Sustainability a Community?

  • No certain definition of sustainability

  • Do communities need high inertia and high resilience?

  • Communities may have one but not the other

  • Equilibrium is rare


Richness and sustainability l.jpg
Richness and Sustainability a Community?

  • Hypotheses

    • Does a community with high species richness have greater sustainability and productivity?

    • Is a species-rich community better able to recover from a disturbance?

  • Research suggests “yes” to both


6 2 what roles do species play in a community l.jpg
6-2 What Roles Do Species Play in a Community? a Community?

  • Concept 6-2 Based on certain ecological roles they play in communities, species are described as native, nonnative, indicator, keystone, or foundation species.


Ecological niche l.jpg
Ecological Niche a Community?

  • Species occupy unique niches

  • Native species

  • Nonnative species

    • Spread in new, suitable niches


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Indicator Species a Community?

  • Early warning system

  • Birds

  • Butterflies

  • Amphibians


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Case Study: Why Are Amphibians Vanishing? (1) a Community?

  • Habitat loss and fragmentation

  • Prolonged drought

  • Pollution

  • Ultraviolet radiation

  • Parasites


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Case Study: Why Are Amphibians Vanishing? (2) a Community?

  • Viral and fungal diseases

  • Climate change

  • Overhunting

  • Nonnative predators and competition

  • Why we should care



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Adult frog a Community?

(3 years)

Young frog

Tadpole

develops

into frog

Sperm

Sexual

reproduction

Tadpole

Eggs

Fertilized egg

development

Egg hatches

Organ formation

Fig. 6-2, p. 109


Keystone species l.jpg
Keystone Species a Community?

  • Significant role in their food web

  • Elimination may alter structure, function of community

  • Pollinators

  • Top predators


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Keystone Species: a Community? Dung Beetle

Fig. 6-3, p. 110


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Foundation Species a Community?

  • Create habitats and ecosystems

  • Beavers

  • Elephants

  • Seed dispersers


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Science Focus: Why Should We a Community?Protect Sharks?

  • Remove injured, sick animals

  • Many are gentle giants

  • Provide potential insight into cures for human diseases

  • Keystone species


6 3 how do species interact l.jpg
6-3 How Do Species Interact? a Community?

  • Concept 6-3A Five basic species interactions – competition, predation, parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism – affect the resource use and population sizes of the species in a community.

  • Concept 6-3B Some species develop adaptations that allow them to reduce or avoid competition for resources with other species.


Interspecific competition l.jpg
Interspecific Competition a Community?

  • No two species can share vital limited resources for long

  • Resolved by:

    • Migration

    • Shift in feeding habits or behavior

    • Population drop

    • Extinction

  • Intense competition leads to resource partitioning



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Blakburnian Warbler a Community?

Black-throated Green Warbler

Cape May Warbler

Bay-breasted Warbler

Yellow-rumped Warbler

Fig. 6-4, p. 112


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Predation a Community?

  • Predator-prey relationship

  • Predators and prey both benefit – individual vs. population

  • Predator strategies

  • Prey strategies


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Predator Avoidance a Community?


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Fig. 6-5ab, p. 113 a Community?


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(a) Span worm a Community?

(b) Wandering leaf insect

Fig. 6-5ab, p. 113


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Fig. 6-5cd, p. 113 a Community?


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(c) Bombardier beetle a Community?

(d) Foul-tasting monarch butterfly

Fig. 6-5cd, p. 113


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Fig. 6-5ef, p. 113 a Community?


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(e) Poison dart frog a Community?

(f) Viceroy butterfly mimics

monarch butterfly

Fig. 6-5ef, p. 113


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Fig. 6-5gh, p. 113 a Community?


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(h) When touched, a Community?

snake caterpillar changes

shape to look like head of snake.

(g) Hind wings of Io moth

resemble eyes of a much

larger animal.

Fig. 6-5gh, p. 113


Parasitism l.jpg
Parasitism a Community?

  • Live in or on the host

  • Parasite benefits, host harmed

  • Parasites promote biodiversity


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Mutualism a Community?

  • Everybody benefit by unintentional exploitation

  • Nutrition and protection

  • Gut inhabitant mutualism


Mutualism in action l.jpg
Mutualism in Action a Community?


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(a) Oxpeckers and black rhinoceros a Community?

(b) Clownfish and sea anemone

(c) Mycorrhizal fungi on juniper seedlings in normal soil

(d) Lack of mycorrhizal fungi on juniper seedlings in sterilized soil

Fig. 6-6, p. 114


Commensalism l.jpg
Commensalism a Community?

  • Benefits one with little impact on other


6 4 how do communities respond to changing environmental conditions l.jpg
6-4 How Do Communities Respond to Changing Environmental Conditions?

  • Concept 6-4A The structure and species composition of communities change in response to changing environmental conditions through a process called ecological succession.

  • Concept 6-4B According to the precautionary principle, we should take measures to prevent or reduce harm to human health and natural systems even if some possible cause-and-effect relationships have not been fully established scientifically.


Ecological succession l.jpg
Ecological Succession Conditions?

  • Primary succession

  • Secondary succession

  • Disturbances create new conditions

  • Intermediate disturbance hypothesis



Slide42 l.jpg

Balsam fir, Conditions?

paper birch, and white spruce forest community

Jack pine,

black spruce,

and aspen

Heath mat

Small herbs

and shrubs

Lichens and

mosses

Exposed

rocks

Time

Fig. 6-8, p. 115


Slide43 l.jpg

Lichens and Conditions?

mosses

Exposed

rocks

Balsam fir,

paper birch, and white spruce forest community

Jack pine,

black spruce,

and aspen

Heath mat

Small herbs

and shrubs

Time

Stepped Art

Fig. 6-8, p. 115



Slide45 l.jpg

Mature oak and hickory forest Conditions?

Young pine forest

with developing

understory of oak

and hickory trees

Shrubs and

small pine

seedlings

Perennial

weeds and

grasses

Annual

weeds

Time

Fig. 6-9, p. 116


Slide46 l.jpg

Mature oak and hickory forest Conditions?

Young pine forest

with developing

understory of oak

and hickory trees

Shrubs and

small pine

seedlings

Perennial

weeds and

grasses

Annual

weeds

Time

Stepped Art

Fig. 6-9, p. 116


Succession s unpredictable path l.jpg
Succession’s Unpredictable Path Conditions?

  • Successional path not always predictable toward climax community

  • Communities are ever-changing mosaics of different stages of succession

  • Continual change, not permanent equilibrium


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Precautionary Principle Conditions?

  • Lack of predictable succession and equilibrium should not prevent conservation

  • Ecological degradation should be avoided

  • Better safe than sorry


6 5 what limits the growth of populations l.jpg
6-5 What Limits the Growth of Populations? Conditions?

  • Concept 6-5 No population can continue to grow indefinitely because of limitations on resources and because of competition among species for those resources.


Population distribution l.jpg
Population Distribution Conditions?

  • Clumping – most populations

  • Uniform dispersion

  • Random dispersion



Slide52 l.jpg

(c) Random (dandelions) Conditions?

(b) Uniform (creosote bush)

(a) Clumped (elephants)

Fig. 6-10, p. 118


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Why Clumping? Conditions?

  • Resources not uniformly distributed

  • Protection of the group

  • Pack living gives some predators greater success

  • Temporary mating or young-rearing groups


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Populations Sizes Are Dynamic Conditions?

  • Vary over time

    population = (births + immigration) - (deaths + emigration)

  • Age structure

    • Pre-reproductive stage

    • Reproductive stage

    • Post-reproductive stage


Limits to population growth 1 l.jpg
Limits to Population Growth (1) Conditions?

  • Biotic potential is idealized capacity for growth

  • Intrinsic rate of increase (r)

  • Nature limits population growth with resource limits and competition

  • Environmental resistance


Limits to population growth 156 l.jpg
Limits to Population Growth (1) Conditions?

  • Carrying capacity – biotic potential and environmental resistance

  • Exponential growth

  • Logistic growth



Slide58 l.jpg

Environmental Conditions?

resistance

Carrying capacity (K)

Population stabilizes

Population size (N)

Exponential

growth

Biotic

potential

Time (t)

Fig. 6-11, p. 119


Logistic growth l.jpg
Logistic Growth Conditions?


Slide60 l.jpg

Population Conditions?

overshoots

carrying

capacity

Carrying capacity

Population recovers

and stabilizes

Population

runs out of

resources

and crashes

Number of sheep (millions)

Exponential

growth

Year

Fig. 6-12, p. 119


Overshoot and dieback l.jpg
Overshoot and Dieback Conditions?

  • Population not transition smoothly from exponential to logistic growth

  • Overshoot carrying capacity of environment

  • Caused by reproductive time lag

  • Dieback, unless excess individuals switch to new resource


Overshoot and population crash of reindeer l.jpg
Overshoot and Population Crash Conditions?of Reindeer


Slide63 l.jpg

Population Conditions?

overshoots

carrying

capacity

Population

crashes

Number of reindeer

Carrying

capacity

Year

Fig. 6-13, p. 120


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Different Reproductive Patterns Conditions?

  • r-Selected species

    • High rate of population increase

    • Opportunists

  • K-selected species

    • Competitors

    • Slowly reproducing

  • Most species’ reproductive cycles between two extremes


R and k selected positions on the sigmoid growth curve l.jpg
r Conditions?- and K-selected Positions on the Sigmoid Growth Curve


Slide66 l.jpg

Carrying capacity Conditions?

K

K species;

experience

K selection

Number of individuals

r species;

experience

r selection

Time

Fig. 6-14, p. 120


Humans not except from population controls l.jpg
Humans Not Except from Population Controls Conditions?

  • Bubonic plague (14th century)

  • Famine in Ireland (1845)

  • AIDS

  • Technology, social, and cultural changes extended earth’s carrying capacity for humans

  • Expand indefinitely or reach carrying capacity?


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Case Study: Exploding White-tailed Deer Populations in the United States

  • 1900: population 500,000

  • 1920–30s: protection measures

  • Today: 25–30 million white-tailed deer in U.S.

  • Conflicts with people living in suburbia


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Animation: Demographic Transition Model United States

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