Collaborative image based tagging and interactive mapping on tabletops
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Collaborative Image-based Tagging and Interactive Mapping on Tabletops. Presented By: Glen Whitaker Supervisor: Judy Kay. Research Question. How to Support Tabletop interaction for organisation of Content? Why is it important? Novelty of User Interface Organising is fundamental

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Collaborative Image-based Tagging and Interactive Mapping on Tabletops

Presented By: Glen Whitaker

Supervisor: Judy Kay


Research Question

  • How to Support Tabletop interaction for organisation of Content?

  • Why is it important?

    • Novelty of User Interface

    • Organising is fundamental

      • Especially file systems

  • Constraints?

    • Limited methods of input

  • Challenges?

    • No established toolkits, primitives, UI design

    • No guidelines

    • Research - Cruiser Tabletop as exploratory framework


Refined Research Question

  • How to Support Tabletop interaction for organisation of Content using Tagging and Maps?

  • Why?

    • Tagging text is similar to associating file name and location to files in a file system

    • Maps similar concept to the folder structure in a file system


Sub-Problem: How to Support Tagging at Tabletop

  • Adding Tags to Images

  • Linking Images to maps

  • Single text/image tags

  • Multiple Tags


Refinement: Elements of Tagging

  • Way to organise and find digital artefacts

  • Key interface tasks for tagging

    • Defining tags

    • Adding tags to objects

    • Viewing tags

    • Searching tags

    • Deleting tags

  • How to achieve this on Tabletop Interfaces?


Approach 1: MyTags

  • Inspired by TeamTag

    • Morris, M. R., A. Paepcke, T. Winograd, and J. Stamberger. "TeamTag: Exploring Centralized Versus Replicated Controls for Co-Located Tabletop Groupware." Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human Factors in computing systems CHI: ACM Press, 2006. 1273 - 82.

  • Text-Based Tagging

  • Adding Text to Images

  • Adding Multiple Text to Images


Approach 2: MyMaps

  • Image-based Tagging in context of maps

  • Adding Images to Map Locations

    • Placing image on a single map location/region

  • Adding Images to Multiple Map Locations

    • Placing an image to multiple regions on map


Prototype


Defining Tags

  • Tags are predefined (externally in a file/database)

  • Tags represented by special objects


Adding Tags


Viewing Tags

  • MyTags

    • Flip image over to view list of text

  • MyMaps

    • Dwell on tag to view image

  • Viewing is same for single and multiple tags in both MyTags and MyMaps


Deleting Tags

  • Move tag to blackhole

  • Same for tags in both MyMaps and MyTags

  • Same for single and multiple tags


The Framework

  • Cruiser

    • Images

    • Blackhole (garbage collection object)

  • Tagging Primitives

    • Adding Text Tags

    • Adding Image based tags

    • Adding Regions

    • View Tags

    • Delete Tags


Previous Elements

Blackhole

Images

  • Previous Elements used by MyMaps:

    • Blackhole (garbage collection object)

    • Images (used to represent exhibits)

      • Audio can be associated with image

      • Images can have other images placed on back


New Elements

  • “New” elements of the Cruiser Tabletop

    • Map Resources

    • Map Region Creation Tool

    • “Pin Images” similar to pins on a notice board

    • Image Region Identification

Map

Back of Image

Region

Pin Images

Text Attachment

Region Tool

Text Object


Architecture

= Trent’s Cruiser Elements

= New Elements


Evaluation

  • Performance

    • Successful Tagging with MyTag

    • Successful Tagging with MyMaps

  • Other usability elements

    • Comparison of affordances

    • Learnability

    • Error Rate

    • Error Recovery

  • Collocated Collaboration UI aspects

    • Duplicated Maps

    • UI Facilitates Collaboration

  • Evaluate Effects of Short term memory load

    • Images

    • Maps


Evaluation Design

  • Qualitative Evaluations

  • 6 Pairs (User A, User B)

  • Asked to design their own museum

  • Double cross over condition (TeamTag and MyMaps + MyTags)

  • User A and B given different sets of text attached to 10 images

  • Questionnaire for effective issues:

    • Preference, attitudes, perspective


Evaluation Steps

  • Tutorial

  • Task 1

    • Design virtual Museum

  • Task 2

    • Free-form virtual Museum

  • Tutorial of cross-over system

  • Repeat Tasks 1 and 2 for cross over system

  • Questionnaire

Encourage Collaboration in Tagging Context

Evaluate Collaboration and usability without design limitations

Double cross-over to control first system effect


= Represents System used Second (always faster)


= Represents System used Second

= Preferred Method

X


10/12 Preferred Second System

2 preferred MyMaps even as first system

= Represents System used Second

= Preferred Method

X


2 People (1 Pair) liked both

Others evenly split

Some commented regions suited task better and less planning needed

= Represents System used Second

= Preferred Method

X


5 People (2 Pairs + 1) liked but hardware limitations prevented effective use

= Represents System used Second

= Preferred Method

X


All participants liked Image Tagging and could use comfortably

= Represents System used Second

= Preferred Method

X


Manly yes, participants lost tags creating objects

Pair 1 preferred flexibility to organise

= Represents System used Second

= Preferred Method

X


Performance Results

  • Successful Tagging with MyTag

    • Association of Text to objects performed with low error rate

    • Pairs completed tasks successfully using method

  • Successful Tagging with MyMaps

    • Association of Images was performed with low error rate

    • Pairs completed tasks successfully using method


Other usability elements

  • Swipe action for text tagging was liked and not really in the design

  • Learnability

    • Easy to learn tagging primitives

  • Error Rate/Recovery

    • Low error rate for Swipe/movement text association technique

      • Errors were due to having multiple images flipped within path of movement

    • Low error rate for image tags on maps

      • Errors were mainly a result of lack planning suitable location

    • Image Tags

      • Errors fixed by deletion of reference point and further planning

    • Text Tags

      • Errors fixed by deletion of attached text


Collocated Collaboration

  • Duplicate Maps

    • Participants did not use replicated maps as expected Hardware limitations - multiple use - affected this

    • 3 out of 12 participants used second map as a thumbnail view of the focus map

  • UI Facilitates Collaboration

    • Participants shared text objects

    • Participants collaboratively planned image tag locations

    • Participants collaboratively planned text tags for each image


Effects on Short-Term Memory Load

  • Images

    • Images are flipped in tagging, causing short-term memory load but avoiding confusion

    • Images could not be semi-transparent since it would conflict with other functions

  • Maps

    • Dwelling needed to view images relating to tags

    • image tag design reduced clutter and confusion about map objects as the cost of the need to check what reference points represented

  • Participants were observed to have minor problems remembering tags with the small sample of images and text


Caveats

  • Hardware

    • Mimio capturing technology used for Cruiser only allows one interaction at a time

  • Software

    • Objects are 2-Dimensional representations

    • Text predefined in external file loaded at start up

    • Precision of interaction depends on accuracy of calibration


Future Work

  • Handwriting for tag inputs

  • Backend database for efficiency (minimise I/O)

  • Personalised recommendations based on tags

  • Link tagging to file system – (Anthony Collins thesis)


Contribution

  • Significant progress in understanding how to support collocated collaborative planning at a tabletop

  • Insight into new gestures for image tagging and text tagging on tabletops

  • Swipe gesture discovered


No more slides. Click to continue.


Results

  • Was 6 pairs enough?

    • Sample showed consistent patterns relating to Image Tagging

    • Provided substantial usability, performance, collaboration and affordance results

    • More detailed and extensive evaluations required for further results


Background: Virtual Museum Implementation

  • Virtual Museums

    • Digital Technology being used to display exhibits while preserving the contents of an exhibit in digital format

    • Augmented Reality and 3D Modelling advancements allow photorealistic exhibits

  • Huang, C., C. Chen, and P. Chung. "Projects in VR: Tangible Photorealistic Virtual Museum." IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications: IEEE, 2005. pp 15 - 17.


Direct Touch Interfaces

  • DiamondTouch Tabletop

    • Direct-Touch Based Interaction

    • Unique identification based on circuits through chairs/pads

  • Other Touch based tables include: SmartSkin, Entertaible and Misto

  • Ryall, K., M.R. Morris, K. Everitt, C. Forlines, and C. Shen. "Experiences with and Observations of Direct-Touch Tabletops." First IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems: IEEE, 2006.


Lumisight – Rear Projection Design

  • Lumisight Tabletop

    • Projectors inside the table project different images in different directions

    • Number of users limited to number of projectors

  • Kakehi, Y., T. Hosomi, M. Iida, T. Naemura, and M. Matsushita. "Transparent Tabletop Interface for Multiple Users on Lumisight Table." First IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems: IEEE, 2006.


TeamSearch

  • TeamSearch

    • Use of special widgets to represent metadata shared by all users

    • Search images through use of widgets

    • Search through manually tagged images using widgets

  • Morris, M.R., A. Paepcke, and T. Winograd. "Teamsearch: Comparing Techniques for Co-Present Collaborative Search of Digital Media." First IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems: IEEE, 2006. pp 97 - 104.

Widget

Personal Space

Query Objects

Metadata inside widgets


TeamSearch

  • Added Tags

    • Tags in the original implementation were added manually to each image

  • Searching

    • Users search the photos by placing query object onto the metadata values

    • Thumbnails of matching photo’s appear in that user’s personal space

  • Tags are

    • Metadata that matches the contents of the widgets


TeamTag

  • TeamTag

    • Presentation and association of metadata

    • Centralised-control (TeamSearch approach) and Replicated-control design

  • Morris, M. R., A. Paepcke, T. Winograd, and J. Stamberger. "TeamTag: Exploring Centralized Versus Replicated Controls for Co-Located Tabletop Groupware." Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human Factors in computing systems CHI: ACM Press, 2006. 1273 - 82.

Centralised-Controls Design

Replicated-Controls Design


TeamTag

  • Centralised-controls design

    • Implementation of TeamSearch widgets

    • Users attach metadata by tapping image, then subsequently selecting a piece of metadata in a widget

  • Replicated-controls design

    • Presents metadata categorised into columns that are presented in front of each user

    • Users attach metadata by tapping image, then subsequently selecting a piece of metadata in the collection presented in front of them


TeamTag

  • Added Tags

    • Tapping the image to be tagged and the subsequent piece of metadata selected by that user is attached

    • Multiple tags can be associated to images using this method

  • Tags are

    • Defined sets of metadata

  • Viewing Tags

    • Popup lists present what metadata is associated with an image

    • Popup lists activated by a user touching an image with two fingers


Centralised Vs Replicated

  • Evaluated in context of zoo, labelling each image with appropriate metadata in groups of 4

  • 19 out of 24 subjects preferred replicated metadata interface

  • Collaborative evaluation of replicated interface showed on average 1.24 users contributed to the tagging of an image

  • Group collaboration and communication levels presented no significant difference


Google Maps

  • Google Maps

    • Interactively move around map of world

    • Zoom in on satellite and road maps of areas around the world

    • Identify businesses on the maps by providing business info to Google to tag based on street address

    • WikiMapia provides user defined region tagging

  • Google Maps Tour. Google. Available: http://www.google.com/help/maps/tour/. 10th of August 2006.


Google Maps

  • Added Tags

    • WikiMapia – Drawing of a box on the map to indicate a region

    • Google Maps – Entering of data with the location being labelled by the system based on data inputted about a business

  • Searching

    • Searches performed by comparing text inputted to the metadata that is associated with a tag

  • Tags

    • WikiMapia – regions are user defined boxes with a text tag identifying what the region is

    • Google Maps – identifies single addresses with business details associated with that address (limited to USA, Japan, UK, China and Canada)

  • Point Vs Region

    • WikiMapia allows user identification of regions

    • Google maps allows identification of single addresses on maps


The Cruiser

  • Cruiser Tabletop

    • Uses Mimio® to Capture Interaction

    • Uses Pen stylus devices for interaction

    • Number of users limited to Pen Numbers

  • MyMaps and current software on the cruiser can be implemented using DiamondTouch interfaces

  • Trent Apted’s First Year of PhD presentation on Photo sharing with Sharepic system and the Cruiser Tabletop


Map Resources

  • Contribution

    • Explore how collaborative planning activities can be performed on tabletop interfaces

    • Provides a context for image based tagging

  • Transparency levels represent the interactive state

  • Maps are replicated for the number of users

Interactive Map

Non-Interactive Map

Map With some Tags

Walls in Museum


Regions

  • Contribution

    • Categorisation through areas on map objects

    • Evaluate the effectiveness of planning through the identification of regions

  • Using a region creation tool to identify these regions

  • Image tagged to maps within regions inherit any text for those regions

Attached Regions

Region Creation Tool

E.g. Greek

E.g. Roman


Image Tags

  • Contribution

    • Evaluation of the effectiveness of image based tagging on collaborative interfaces

    • Evaluate how this assists in planning tasks on tabletop interfaces

  • Assigned by performing a gesture on the image to be attached while placed on top of the map

Map with Image Tags of 2 different Users

Images


Text Association

  • Contribution

    • Compare swipe (MyMaps) to tapping (TeamTag)

    • Compare Map-based tagging and TeamTag approach to tag Images

  • Attach text by dragging over the back of images and regions

Back of Image

Text Attachment

Text Object


Image Based Tagging

  • Metadata stored in text format within a designated folder

  • Metadata stored for images and regions:

    • Maps

    • Regions

    • Rotations

    • Locations

    • Text

    • Scale

  • Each entry of a location in the tag files for each image and region represents a tag on a designated map

    ##LOCATION

    <map>: <x coordinate>, <y coordinate>, <z coordinate>

    <map>: <x coordinate>, <y coordinate>, <z coordinate>


Image Based Tagging

  • Tags are represented by special “Pin Images” which are small (at the moment) blue spherical-like images that resemble a pin

  • Each “Pin Image” relies on a designated rotation entry and location entry

    ##ROTATION

    <radian value of rotation>

    <radian value of rotation>

    ##LOCATION

    <map>: <x coordinate>, <y coordinate>, <z coordinate>

    <map>: <x coordinate>, <y coordinate>, <z coordinate>

  • Images that are linked to regions are also indirectly associated to the map that the region is linked to


More Video


Other Tabletop Research

  • Benko, H., A.D. Wilson, and P. Baudisch. "Precise Selection Techniques for Multi-Touch Screens." SIGCHI conference on Human Factors in computing systems ACM Press, 2006. pp 1263 - 72.

  • Ha, V., K. Inkpen, R. Mandryk, and T. Whalen. "Direct Intentions: The Effect of Input Devices on Collaboration around a Tabletop Display." First IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems: IEEE, 2006.

  • Ryall, K., K. Everitt, C. Forlines, and C. Shen. "Multispace: Enabling Electronic Document Micro-Mobility in Table-Centric Mult-Devie Environments." First IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems: IEEE, 2006.

  • Scott, S., M. Sheelagh, T. Carpendale, and K. Inkpen. "Territoriality in Collaborative Tabletop Workspaces " Proceedings of the ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work ACM Press, 2004. 294 - 303.

  • Tang, A., M. Tory, B. Po, P. Neumann, and S. Carpendale. "Collaborative Coupling over Tabletop Displays." SIGCHI conference on Human Factors in computing systems CHI: ACM Press, 2006. pp 1181 - 90.


More Tags …

  • Wikimapia. Available: http://www.wikimapia.org. 10th of August 2006.

  • Toyama, K., R. Logan, and A. Roseway. "Geographic Location Tags on Digital Images." Proceedings of the eleventh ACM international conference on Multimedia ACM Press, 2003. pp 156 - 66.

  • Marlow, C., M. Naaman, D. Boyd, and M. Davis. "Ht06, Tagging Paper, Taxonomy, Flickr, Academic Article, to Read." The seventeenth conference on Hypertext and hypermedia ACM Press, 2006. pp 31 - 40.

  • Del.Icio.Us. Available: http://del.icio.us/. 3rd of September 2006.

  • Google Maps. Google. Available: http://maps.google.com/. 10th of August 2006.

  • Morris, M. R., A. Paepcke, T. Winograd, and J. Stamberger. "Teamtag: Exploring Centralized Versus Replicated Controls for Co-Located Tabletop Groupware." Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human Factors in computing systems CHI: ACM Press, 2006. 1273 - 82.


References

  • Koshizuka, N., and K. Sakamura. "Tokyo University Digital Museum." International Conference on Digital Libraries: Research and Practice Kyoto, 2000. pp 85 - 92.

  • WikiMapia. Google. Available: http://www.wikimapia.org. 10th of August 2006.

  • Kakehi, Y., T. Hosomi, M. Iida, T. Naemura, and M. Matsushita. "Transparent Tabletop Interface for Multiple Users on Lumisight Table." First IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems: IEEE, 2006.

  • Huang, C., C. Chen, and P. Chung. "Projects in VR: Tangible Photorealistic Virtual Museum." IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications: IEEE, 2005. pp 15 - 17.

  • Morris, M. R., A. Paepcke, T. Winograd, and J. Stamberger. "Teamtag: Exploring Centralized Versus Replicated Controls for Co-Located Tabletop Groupware." Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human Factors in computing systems CHI: ACM Press, 2006. 1273 - 82.


References

  • Morris, M.R., A. Paepcke, and T. Winograd. "Teamsearch: Comparing Techniques for Co-Present Collaborative Search of Digital Media." First IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems: IEEE, 2006. pp 97 - 104.

  • Trent Apted’s First Year of PhD presentation on Photo sharing with Sharepic system and the Cruiser Tabletop

  • Ryall, K., M.R. Morris, K. Everitt, C. Forlines, and C. Shen. "Experiences with and Observations of Direct-Touch Tabletops." First IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems: IEEE, 2006.

  • Google Maps Tour. Google. Available: http://www.google.com/help/maps/tour/. 10th of August 2006.


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