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Environmental Biology for Engineers and Scientists D.A. Vaccari, P.F. Strom, and J.E. Alleman © John Wiley & Sons, 2005. Chapter 14 - Ecology. C 3 – 2. P – 1. C 2 – 120,000. P – 90,000. C 1 – 150,000. P – 200,000. P – 1,500,000. P – 200. Grassland (summer). Temperate forest (summer).

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slide1

Environmental Biologyfor Engineers and ScientistsD.A. Vaccari, P.F. Strom, and J.E. Alleman© John Wiley & Sons, 2005

Chapter 14 - Ecology

slide2

C3 – 2

P – 1

C2 – 120,000

P – 90,000

C1 – 150,000

P – 200,000

P – 1,500,000

P – 200

Grassland (summer)

Temperate forest (summer)

C2 - 4

C1 - 21

C1 - 11

P - 4

P – 96

English Channel

Wisconsin lake

(A)

(B)

Figure 14-1. Examples of several types of trophic pyramids.

(A) Pyramid of numbers of individuals per 0.1 hectare,

not including microorganisms and soil animals. (B) Pyramid of biomass – grams dry weight per square meter.

[Based on Odum]

slide3

(C)

C3 - 21

C2 - 383

C1 - 3368

S - 5060

P – 20,810

Energy flow

C2 - 3

C2 - 6

(D)

C1 - 10

C1 - 12

C3 – 1.5

C2 - 11

P – 2

P – 100

C1 - 37

S - 5

Winter

Spring

P – 809

Standing crop

Figure 14-1. Examples of several types of trophic pyramids.

(C) Standing crop (in kcal/m2) versus energy flow (in kcal/m2/yr) pyramids for Silver Springs, Florida.(D) Seasonal change in biomass pyramid in the water column (net plankton only) of an Italian lake (mg/m3).

[Based on Odum Fig 3-18, pg 152].

slide4

Figure 14-2.

  • Next two slides: Food webs for an
  • unpolluted and
  • a polluted marsh/estuary.
  • [from “Water Quality in a Recovering Ecosystem”, C.P. Mattson and N.C. Vallario, Hackensack Meadowlands Development Commission, 1975.].
slide5

Plovers

Sandpipers

Willet

Periwinkles

Terrapin

Clapper rail

Blowfish

Sea Robin

Oyster

Mosquito

(a)

Mussels

Clams

Fiddler Crab

Oystercatcher

Snails

Herring Gull

Glossy Ibis

Dowitchers

Mud

Algae

Blue Crabs

MarshPlants

Killifish

Stickleback

Silversides

Sheepshead Minnow

Geese

EXPORT

Detritus

Ducks

Winter

Flounder

Man

Gulls

Terns

Bluefish

Striped Bass

Muskrat

Raccoon

Amphipods

Shrimp

Ribbed

Mussel

Weakfish

MiceVoles

Summer Flounder

Spotted Sea Trout

Shark

Grasshoppers &

Leaf hoppers

slide6

Clapper rail

Mosquito

(b)

Fiddler Crab

Herring Gull

Glossy Ibis

Dowitchers

Mud

Algae

MarshPlants

Killifish

Stickleback

Silversides

Sheepshead Minnow

Geese

EXPORT

Detritus

Ducks

Man

Gulls

Terns

Muskrat

Raccoon

Weakfish

MiceVoles

Shark

Grasshoppers &

Leaf hoppers

slide7

Figure 14-3. Generalized global biogeochemical cycle. (Based on Krebs)

Atmosphere

Volatilization

and evaporation

Precipitation,

deposition,

absorption

Volatilization

and evaporation

Terrestrial

food web

Death

Dead organic

matter

Uptake

Runoff

Marine

food web

Dissolved

minerals

Dead organic

matter

Decomposition

Weathering

Sinking

Lithosphere

Geological processes

slide8

Figure 14-4.

The sedimentary cycle. The three sedimentary pathways:

a) mantle; b) subduction zone volcanic activity; c) crustal motion

[Based on Odum]

Manmade fallout

Natural fallout

Sediment

and

sedimentary

rock

Weathering

and Erosion

Subduction

zone

Granitic

Continent

Basalt

Basalt

Mantle

slide9

Figure 14-5. The global carbon cycle.

Units: 1015 g C or 1015 g C/yr.

(Based on Krebs)

Atmosphere

720

Photosynthesis

and respiration

120

Deforestation,

land use change

and burning

0 - 2

5

Exchange

90

Absorption

2

Land

plants

500-800

Rivers

0.5 - 2

Soil and

detritus

1500

40

Ocean surface

1020

Marine

Biota

3

50

91.6

4

6

100

Fossil

fuel

6000

Carbonate

rocks

10,000,000

DOC

<700

Intermediate and

deep water 35,000

0.2

Sediments 150

slide11

Figure 14-6. The hydrologic cycle. UNITS 1018 g or 1018 g/yr [Based on Odum]

Atmosphere

13

Vapor transport to land

37.4

Evaporation

transpiration

72.9

Precipitation

on the sea

385.7

Precipitation

on land

110.3

Evaporation

from the sea

423.1

Ice

29,000

Runoff

37.4

Lakes and Rivers

130

Ocean

1,370,000

Groundwater

9,500

slide12

Atmosphere

Land and water

Figure 14-7. Fluxes in the global nitrogen cycle. Estimated fluxes in Tg/yr. Ammonia, organic nitrogen and other forms also enter the atmosphere and oxidize or fall with rain. Dotted line arrows represent primarily anthropogenic fluxes.

[Based on Odum and on Raven]

Forest fires

12

Lightning

4

N2

Fossil fuel

Combustion

21

Industrial

fixation

40

Denitrification

Land 107-161

Sea 40-120

NOx

Biofixation

Land 139

Sea 10-90

NO3- from air to: Land Sea Total

Acid rain 17 9 26

Dry deposition 15 4 19

NO3-

Nitrification

Volcanism 5

NH3

Assimilation

1000

Mineralization

(Ammonification)

Organic N

slide13

Figure 14-8. Another view of the global nitrogen cycle,

showing storage reservoirs of nitrogen. Values are kg/m2.

(Based on Whittaker, 1975.)

NH3

Atmosphere

0.000024

N2

Atmosphere

7550

N2O

Atmosphere

0.0030

Organic N

Animals

0.00215

Organic N

Plants

0.067

Organic N

Soil/Ocean

1.2

NO3-

Soil/Ocean

0.84

N2

Ocean

42

NO2-

Soil/Ocean

0.027

NH3

Soil/Ocean

0.056

N2O

Ocean

0.00062

NH4+

Igneous Rocks

860

NO3-

Sediments

0.005

Organic N

Sediments

8800

slide14

-1

+3

+6

+1

0

+4

+5

+2

-2

Biochemical sulfur transformations.

Sulfur Oxidation States

Anoxic sulfate reducing bacteria

Sulfide

generating

bacteria

Anoxic sulfite reducing bacteria

Anoxic thiosulfate

reducing bacteria

=

=

=

H2S

S0

S2 O3

SO3

SO4

Hydrogen

Sulfur

Thiosulfate

Sulfite

Sulfate

Sulfide

Sulfide oxidizers

Elemental sulfur oxidizers

slide15

Figure 14-9. The global sulfur cycle.

Units: 1012 g S/yr. [Based on Krebs]

Aerial transport to sea

Wet and dry

deposition

84

81

Dust

20

Industrial

93

Aerial transport to land

20

Volcanism

10

Biogenic gases

22

Sea

salt

144

Biogenic

gases

43

Volcanism

10

Deposition

258

Rivers

213

Mining

149

Weathering and erosion

72

Hydrothermal

sulfides

96

Pyrite

39

slide16

Figure 14-10. Example phosphorus cycle from a Georgia salt marsh. Reservoirs are in mg P/m2, fluxes are in mg P/d/m3. Uptake by Spartina and release from detritus vary seasonally as shown.[Based on Odum]

Filter feeders

175

6

6

Water

30

16.4 (avg)

Detritus

10,000

9.8

9.8

16.4 (avg)

Spartina

660

Sediments

500,000

slide17

Figure 14-11. Simplified nitrogen cycle in the Bay of Quinte, Ontario (Based on Ricklefs)

X2

Particulate N

J2 = k2 X2

J1 = k1X1

X1

Nitrate

X3

DON

J4 = k4X4

X4

Ammonia

J3 = k3X3

J5 = k5X4

slide18

Figure 14-12. Temperature-moisture climograph. (a) The successful introduction of the Hungarian Partridge to Montana, the unsuccessful introduction to Missouri, compared to average conditions in its native breeding range in Europe. (b) Conditions in Tel Aviv, Israel showing conditions favoring an outbreak of the Mediterranean fruit fly in 1927.

[Redrawn from Odum, 1983; original from Twomey, 1936.]

slide19

Figure 14-13. Population histogram for three different growth scenarios. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, International Data Base, September 2004 version.

slide21

Figure 14-15. The logistic equation solution [14-26] with several parameter values, and compared to exponential growth equation [14-18]. The dashed line is N = 100.

a. Logistic equation with r0 = 1.0, K = 100, N(0) = 5.0; b. Logistic equation with r0 = 0.75, K = 100, N(0) = 5.0; c. Logistic equation with r0 = 1.0, K = 70, N(0) = 5.0; d. Logistic equation with r0 = 1.0, K = 100, N(0) = 150.; e. Exponential equation with r0 = 0.7, N(0) = 5.0

slide22

Figure 14-16. U.S. population data with logistic equation fit by Pearl and Reed, and updated logistic equation fitted to years 1950-1990.

slide23

Figure 14-17. Oscillations in predator-prey populations. Example is a predatory wasp [Heterospilus prosopidis] and its host the weevil [Callosobruchus chinensis].

Data from Utida, 1957.

slide24

(a)

(b)

  • Figure 14-18. Simulation results of the Lotka-Volterra equations.
  • Time domain plot with H(0) = 100 and P(0) = 10.
  • Phase-plane plot (P vs. H) for various initial conditions, and the equilibrium point.
slide25

Closed communities

Ecotone

Ecotone

Ecotone

Abundance

Environmental gradient

Open communities

Abundance

Environmental gradient

Figure 14-19.

Population distributions along a hypothetical environmental gradient. (a) Closed communities; (b) Open communities.

[Based on Ricklefs]