Are Those Who Bring Work Home Really Working Longer Hours?
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Are Those Who Bring Work Home Really Working Longer Hours? Implications for BLS Productivity Measures. Lucy P. Eldridge Sabrina Wulff Pabilonia. Dislaimer: The views expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the policies of the US Bureau of Labor Statistics. Questions.

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Are Those Who Bring Work Home Really Working Longer Hours? Implications for BLS Productivity Measures

Lucy P. Eldridge

Sabrina Wulff Pabilonia

Dislaimer: The views expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the policies of the US Bureau of Labor Statistics.


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Questions

  • Who is bringing work home from the workplace and why?

  • Do workers who bring work home work longer hours than those who only work in the workplace?

  • Does BLS’ nonfarm business sector productivity measure capture unpaid work at home?


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Literature on Time Use

  • Michigan and Maryland time use diaries

    • Hamermesh (1990)

    • Robinson and Bostrom (1994)

  • ATUS

    • Frazis and Stewart (2004)

  • 1999 New Zealand Time-Use Survey

    • Callister and Dixon (2001)


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    Literature on Work at Home

    • Home-based workers

      • Census data - Oettinger (2004)

  • Occasional telecommuters

    • Canadian WES - Pabilonia (2005)

    • 1997 CPS Work at Home Supplement – Schroeder and Warren (2004)


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    Data Sources

    • BLS Hours Worked for all Persons in the Nonfarm Business Sector

    • American Time Use Survey

    • May CPS Supplement on Work Schedules and Work at Home


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    BLS Hours Worked for all Persons in Nonfarm Business Sector

    • Primary of source of hours data is the Current Employment Statistics (CES) survey

    • Supplement with other information where CES data are lacking, most importantly

      • Estimate nonproduction/supervisory worker hours using a ratio from the Current Population Survey (CPS)

      • Convert CES hours-paid to an hours-at-work basis using National Compensation Survey (NCS)

      • Add hours for self-employed, government enterprise, and unpaid family workers from CPS


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    Share of Nonfarm Business Sector Hours and Employment, by Type of Worker: 2004

    Hours Worked Employment

    Production/Nonsupervisory Employees

    Nonproduction/Supervisory Employees

    Nonemployees


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    American Time Use Survey (ATUS) Type of Worker: 2004

    • 2003 - 2005 time-use daily diaries

    • Restrict sample to nonholiday weekday diary days

    • Hours worked constructed as sum of minutes for main job, by location


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    ATUS: Bring Work Home Variable Type of Worker: 2004

    • Report any minutes of work on their main job at the workplace and at home on the same day

    • Salaried employees are more likely to bring unpaid work home than workers who are paid hourly


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    May CPS Supplement on Work Schedules and Work at Home Type of Worker: 2004(CPS Supplement)

    • 2001 and 2004

    • All respondents from the May CPS are asked supplement questions

    • Questions about work schedules and work at home


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    CPS Supplement: Type of Worker: 2004Bring Work Home Variable

    • “As part of this job do you do any of your work at home?”

    • “Do you have a formal arrangement with your employer to be paid for the work that you do at home or were you just taking work home from the job?


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    Proportion Who Bring Work Home, Type of Worker: 2004by Time of the Day Working at Home(ATUS)


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    Percent Who Bring Unpaid Work Home, by Frequency Type of Worker: 2004 (CPS Supplement)


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    Who is bringing work home? Type of Worker: 2004

    More likely to be:

    • Married

    • Have a spouse that works

    • At least a bachelor’s degree

    • Management or professional occupations

    • CPS Supplement only– a parent and older

      Less likely to be:

    • Black

    • Hispanic

    • ATUS only - paid hourly

    • CPS Supplement only – female and work part-time





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    Do those who bring work home work longer hours? HomeATUS: Production and nonsupervisory employees


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    Do those who bring work home work longer hours? HomeATUS: Nonproduction and supervisory employees



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    Does BLS’ nonfarm business sector productivity measure capture unpaid work at home?

    • Estimate percent of unmeasured hours for production/nonsupervisory employees and nonproduction/supervisory employees



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    Share of Nonfarm Business Sector Hours and Employment, by Type of Worker: 2004

    Hours Worked Employment

    Production/Nonsupervisory Employees

    Nonproduction/Supervisory Employees

    Nonemployees



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    Does BLS’ nonfarm business sector productivity measure capture unpaid work at home?

    • Construct total adjusted hours for all persons

    • Compare trends in BLS measured hours to adjusted hours series


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    Conclusions capture

    • Highly-educated workers are more likely to bring unpaid work home than less-educated workers

    • Fathers are more likely to bring work home than men who have no children

    • Worker tend to bring work home in order to finish or catch up on work not completed in the workplace


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    Conclusions capture

    • Those who bring work home work more hours than those who work exclusively in a workplace

    • The ATUS indicates that 0.5 to 0.6% of hours are unmeasured due to work at home

    • The CPS Supplement indicates a slightly larger percent are unmeasured – 0.7%

    • The ATUS shows a slight overstatement of productivity growth while the CPS supplement shows no overstatement


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