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APA Without Agony. ALOP 242 August 28, 2009. Overview. Basic Principles Follow author-date system Credit words and ideas from other authors Give information on how to locate the source How to Create APA-style References Quotations Intext citation format Reference list entry What about…

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Apa without agony l.jpg

APA Without Agony

ALOP 242August 28, 2009


Overview l.jpg
Overview

  • Basic Principles

    • Follow author-date system

    • Credit words and ideas from other authors

    • Give information on how to locate the source

  • How to Create APA-style References

    • Quotations

    • Intext citation format

    • Reference list entry

    • What about…

    • Free citation makers

    • Sources for this class

    • Impact of clean APA

Click in lower leftcorner to returnto overview


How did it start l.jpg
How did it start?

In 1928, guidelines were 7 pages

  • • Introduce consistency

  • • Simplify life for authors and editors


How does it work l.jpg
How does it work?

  • Used in social sciences to

  • Based on publication criteria for American Psychological Association (APA)

  • Acknowledge sources of information

  • Allow readers to locate original sources

Author-date system

Ferrari (2000) has classified procrastinators as arousal types, avoiders, and decisional procrastinators.

Ferrari, J. (2000, Special Issue). Procrastination and attention: Factor analysis of attention deficit, boredomness, intelligence, self-esteem, and task-delay frequencies. Journal of Social Behavior & Personality, 15(5), 185-196. Retrieved from Academic Search Elite database.

intext citation

reference entry


How does it work5 l.jpg
How does it work?

Within a paper


How does it work6 l.jpg
How does it work?

Within the field

COAUTHORS

OPPOSITION

Baumeister

Tice

Choi

CITED BY

FERRARI

Perry

Psychology

Steel

Philosophy



How does it work8 l.jpg
How does it work?

  • Citations give credit to words or ideastaken from other authors.

IDEAS Tice and Baumeister (1997) reject the idea that procrastination can be a productive strategy.

WORDS “Procrastination is not aneutral or innocuous form of time management, let alone a helpful or beneficial one (as some people claim)” (Tice & Baumeister, 1997, p. 456).

Bam! Biff!


Where do i fit in l.jpg

Consider this real-life example. The first guidelines given to freelance writers areoften amended two or three times as a project begins. Experienced writers learnto write one lesson and wait for feedback.

The key to productive procrastination, according to Chu and Choi, is to use delay as a proactive strategy.

Where do I fit in?

  • Procrastination can be a productivestrategy for adapting to rapidly changing priorities (Chu & Choi, 2005).


How does it work10 l.jpg
How does it work? to freelance writers are

  • Two elements

    • Intext citations credit words and ideas (Chapter 6)

    • Reference list locates original source(Chapter 7)

Author-date system

Author-date system

Ferrari, J. (2000, Special Issue). Procrastination and attention: Factor analysis of attention deficit, boredomness, intelligence, self-esteem, and task-delay frequencies. Journal of Social Behavior & Personality, 15(5), 185-196. Retrieved from Academic Search Elite database.

Ferrari (2000) has classified procrastinators as arousal types, avoiders, and decisional procrastinators.

intext citation

reference entry


Can you see the problem s l.jpg
Can you see the problem(s)? to freelance writers are

  • Recently Steel found that traditionalexplanations of procrastination, including fear of failure, self-handi-capping, and rebelliousness, were not supported by research. In his view, only Temporal Motivation theory has been validated.

(2009)

Steel, P. (2009). Theories of procrastination. Retrieved from http://www.procrastinus.com


What are apa s principles l.jpg
What are APA’s principles? to freelance writers are

  • Acknowledge any words or ideasfrom other sources.

  • Provide enough information to locate your sources.

Author-date system


Principle 1 credit ideas l.jpg
Principle 1: Credit ideas to freelance writers are

References

Bennis, W. (1997, Winter). The secrets of great groups. Leader to Leader, 3. Retrieved August 24, 2007, from http://www.leadertoleader.org/ knowledgecenter/L2L/winter97/bennis.html

When we think of the Sistine Chapel, we think of the great artist Michelangelo. However, the credit does not belong to him alone. According to Bennis (1997), sixteen assistants helped create this masterpiece.

parenthetical; no quotation marks

reference entry


Principle 1 credit twice l.jpg
Principle 1: Credit twice to freelance writers are

According to Bennis (1997), sixteen assistants worked with him to create this masterpiece.

References

Bennis, W. (1997, Winter). The secrets of great groups. Leader to Leader, 3. Retrieved from http://www.leadertoleader.org/knowledgecenter/L2L/winter97/bennis.html

Parenthetical citations point to the reference list.

Reference list entries point to the original.


Did ambrose give credit l.jpg

AMBROSE to freelance writers are

Did Ambrose give credit?

CHILDERS

"Up, up, up….”

"Up, up, up…”


Principle 1 plagiarism check l.jpg

" to freelance writers areUp, up, up he went, until he got above the clouds. No amount of practice could have prepared the pilot and crew for what they encountered—B-24s, glittering like mica, were popping up out of the clouds over here, over there, everywhere."

—Stephen Ambrose, The Wild Blue, p. 164

"Up, up, up, groping through the clouds for what seemed like an eternity. ... No amount of practice could have prepared them for what they encountered. B-24s, glittering like mica, were popping up out of the clouds all over the sky."

—Thomas Childers, Wings of Morning, p. 83

Principle 1: Plagiarism check


Principle 1 credit carefully l.jpg

Ambrose’s to freelance writers are

apology

…In each case, I footnoted the passage in question, but failed to put some words and sentences into quotation marks. I am sorry and will make relevant changes in all future editions.”—Stephen Ambrose

Principle 1: Credit carefully

"No amount of practice could have prepared [the pilot and crew] for what they encountered. B-24s, glittering like mica, were popping up out of the clouds" (Childers, 1995, p. 83) over here, over there, everywhere.

References

Childers, T. (1995). Wings of morning.New York: Perseus.

parenthetical

reference entry


Principle 2 locate the source l.jpg
Principle 2: Locate the source to freelance writers are

Like Hansel and Gretel, follow the breadcrumb trail


Intext citation format l.jpg

Burns (2003) has stated that leadership begins “where change begins” (p. 140).

Researcher-focused

Chronology-focused

In 1978, Burns published Leadership, a seminal work in an emerging field. In 2003, he proposed solutions to global problems in Transforming Leadership.

Idea-focused

The innovator’s approach to leadership is exemplified by Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s first days in office (Burns, 2003, p. 181).

Intext citation format

Print quotations: (Author, year, page number).


Intext citation format20 l.jpg

Researcher-focused change begins” (p. 140).

Mann (2005)developed a (10+2)*5 method for overcoming procrastination.

Chronology-focused

In2005, Manndeveloped a unique method for overcoming procrastination, which he calls the (10+2)*5 method.

Idea-focused

The (10+2)*5 method for overcoming procrastination has three steps: work for ten minutes, take a two-minute break, and go back to work, repeating the cycle for an hour(Mann, 2005).

Intext citation format

Paraphrased or no page #: (Author, year).


Intext citation format21 l.jpg
Intext citation format change begins” (p. 140).

Quotations from Internet:

(Author last name, Year, section header, paragraph #)

EXAMPLE

Mann (2005) developed a (10+2)*5 method for overcoming procrastination: work for ten minutes, take a two-minute break, and go back to work, repeating the cycle for an hour. His advice seems counterintuitive: “Breaks cannot be missed. Period. Go surf the web. Now. Seriously. GO!” (Important squirrely rules section, para. 3).


Intext citations in l.jpg

Acknowledge words change begins” (p. 140). with quotation marks and intext citation.

Acknowledge ideas with intext citation only.

Intext citations in ¶

What is procrastination?

Steel (2008) has described procrastination as trading “short-term gain for long-term pain.” Ferrari (2000) classified procrastinators as arousal types, avoiders, and decisional procrastinators. In his view, most people occasionally put things off, but some are chronic procrastinators whose delays disrupt their lives: “Remember, 80% of us procrastinate, but 20% are procrastinators”(2005).

Both Steel (2008)and Ferrari (2000, 2005) emphasized the negative. However, Chu and Choi (2005) found strategic delay could

  • Insert date the first time an author’s name is mentioned in a paragraph.

  • Place any remaining information at the end of material from a source.

  • Intext citations apply to one paragraph.


Reference list format l.jpg

Book change begins” (p. 140).

Perrin, R. (2006). Pocket guide to APA style. New York: Houghton Mifflin.

Journal

Cuddy, C. M. (2002). Demystifying APA style. Orthopaedic Nursing, 21(5), 35-42. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database.

Web article

APA documentation. (2006). Retrieved from University of Wisconsin Writing Center Web site: http://www.wisc.edu/writing/Handbook/DocAPA.html

Reference list format

Author. (Date). Retrieval information.


Be complete l.jpg
Be complete change begins” (p. 140).

http://www.uwisc.edu

?

http://www.uwisc.edu/writing/Handbook/DocAPA.html


Be complete25 l.jpg
Be complete change begins” (p. 140).

Terrace, H. S., Petitto, L. A., Sanders, R. J., & Bever, T. G. (1979). Can an ape create a sentence? Science, 206, 891-902.

  • Washoe: The signing chimp. (n.d.) RetrievedFebruary 5, 2005, from Mrs. Smith’s class Web site: http://www.sdcoe.k12.ca.us/classprojects.html


Nonretrievable info l.jpg
Nonretrievable info change begins” (p. 140).

Retrievable

Include in reference list

  • books

  • web articles

  • videos

  • magazines

  • newsgroup postings

Cite only in text

Nonretrievable

(S. Oh, personal communication, August 27, 2007)

  • letters

  • in-person interviews

  • emails

  • phone calls


What s the error l.jpg
What’s the error? change begins” (p. 140).

Plotz, D. (2002, December 11). The plagiarist: Why Stephen Ambrose is a vampire. Slate. Retrieved from http://www.google.com

Plotz, D. (2002, December 11). The plagiarist: Why Stephen Ambrose is a vampire. Slate. Retrieved from http://slate.msn.com/?id=2060618

INTEXT CITATION(Plotz, 2002)


What s the error28 l.jpg
What’s the error? change begins” (p. 140).

Gesundheit, A. (2009, August 28). Interview with Kaplan librarian.

Plotz, D. (2002, December 11). The plagiarist: Why Stephen Ambrose is a vampire. Slate. Retrieved from http://slate.msn.com/?id=2060618

INTEXT CITATION ONLY(A. Gesundheit, personal communication, August 28, 2009).


Details details l.jpg
Details, details change begins” (p. 140).

  • Principle 1

    • What to quote

    • Block quotations

    • Placing parenthetical citations

    • No page number

  • Principle 2

    • Finding information

    • No author

    • No date

“ ”


What to quote l.jpg

Any words from change begins” (p. 140). the original should be quoted.

What to quote

At least half the mystery novels published violate the law that the solution, once revealed, must seemto be inevitable.

—Raymond Chandler

  • Exceptions

    • common language

      • writ of habeas corpus

      • situational leadership theory

  • common knowledge

    • widely known

    • easily availablein standard references

Raymond Chandler declared that readers should feel that the solution of a mystery is “inevitable.”


Quotations 40 words l.jpg
Quotations < 40 words change begins” (p. 140).

  • Set off someone else’s exact words with quotation marks

  • “Down these mean streets a man must go who is not himself mean, who is neither tarnished nor afraid”(Chandler, 1945).

  • Raymond Chandler (1945) believed that a detective should be“the best man in his world.”


Quotations 40 words32 l.jpg

.5" change begins” (p. 140).

Quotations 40+ words

  • Set off long quotations as block quotations

The classic definition of a detective comes from “The Simple Art of Murder”:

  • Use a new line and left indent instead of quotation marks

Down these mean streets a man must go who is not himself mean, who is neither tarnished nor afraid. The detective in this kind of story must be such a man. He is the hero, he is everything…. He must be, to use a rather weathered phrase, a man of honor…. (Chandler, 1945)

  • Preview block quotes

Hint: Word will count words if you highlight them and choose Tools, Word Count.


Remember intext citations l.jpg
Remember intext citations change begins” (p. 140).

Basic format: (Author, year, page or section head).

Researcher-focused

Burns (2003) has stated that leadership begins “where change begins” (p. 140).

Chronology-focused

In 1978, Burns published Leadership, a seminal work in an emerging field. In 2003, he proposed solutions to global problems in Transforming Leadership.

Idea-focused

The innovator’s approach to leadership is exemplified by Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s first days in office (Burns, 2003, p. 181).


No page header l.jpg

Stable page numbers change begins” (p. 140).

  • book

  • print version

  • PDF

No Page # / Header?

  • If author/date are given in text, that information is not repeated within parentheses at the end.

  • Use only stable page numbers.

  • Use section headers for Internet sources that have them (Steel, n.d., My Definition, para. 1).

According to Tannen (1991), genuine debate has been replaced by an “argument culture” in which people reflexively attack others’ positions.

no page number / header?


Source reflective statement l.jpg
Source-reflective statement change begins” (p. 140).

  • Add comment to show where source material ends and your thoughts begin.

According to Tannen (1991), genuine debate has been replaced by an “argument culture” in which people reflexively attack others’ positions. Some readers might assume that Tannen believes that everyone should just try to get along, but she makes it clear that her position is not so simplistic.

source-reflective statement


What about no author l.jpg
What about… no author? change begins” (p. 140).

  • Start with key words from title

  • Use only as much as necessary

  • Follow standard formatting

    • (“Personality,” 2008).

    • (Types of Procrastinators, 2005).

    • (“Procrastination,” 2008a)

    • (“Procrastination,” 2008b)


What about many sources l.jpg
What about…many sources? change begins” (p. 140).

  • Separate with semicolon

  • Alphabetize within citationto match order of reference list

MULTIPLE CITATION

Most researchers emphasize the negative consequences of procrastination (Ferarri, 2005; Steel, 2008; Tice & Baumeister, 1997).


What about quoted quote l.jpg
What about…quoted quote? change begins” (p. 140).

  • Ideally, find the original

  • Second-best: use as citedin to direct readers to reference list entry

INDIRECT QUOTATION

Procrastinators trade “short term gain for long term pain” according to Steel (as cited in Kahn, 2008).

REFERENCE ENTRY

Kahn, U. (2008, December 7 ). Academics invent a mathematical equation for why people procrastinate. The Telegraph. Retrieved from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/


What about no date l.jpg
What about…no date? change begins” (p. 140).

  • Use n.d.

INTEXTSteel (n.d.) defined procrastination as “to voluntarily delay an intended course of action despite expecting to be worse off for the delay.”

REFERENCE LISTSteel, P. (n.d.). Definition. Retrieved August 28, 2009, from Procrastination Central Web site: http://procrastinus.com


What about many authors l.jpg
What about…many authors? change begins” (p. 140).

  • Consult the Publication Manual, Table 6.1


Citations follow the model l.jpg
Citations: Follow the model change begins” (p. 140).


What s a doi l.jpg
What’s a DOI? change begins” (p. 140).

• first spotted in EBSCO

Mayer, D. (2007, June). Why write? To impact patient care! Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 323. Retrieved May 20, 2008.doi:10.1188/07.CJON.323


Citations cite fast l.jpg

Disclaimer change begins” (p. 140).

None are perfect.

Citations: Cite Fast

www.citefast.com

Leave blanks if info. Is not available.


Citation machine l.jpg

(2009). change begins” (p. 140). APA rules.

None are perfect.

Citation Machine

Citation Machine (www.citationmachine.net)

Bug: will start citationswith no author with date.


Bedford bibliographer l.jpg
Bedford Bibliographer change begins” (p. 140).

http://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/bbibliographer/

Has built-in hints

Is most accurate

Allows you to save, edit, and export

Account is free


Dig before omitting l.jpg

  • visit the home page

  • check links like “About Us”

Dig before omitting

Author

  • check beginning and end of article

  • visit the home page

  • check links like “About Us”


Where info can hide l.jpg
Where info can hide change begins” (p. 140).

Author

Title

  • check beginning and end of article

  • distinguish site titles and subheads from article titles

  • visit the home page

  • check “About Us”

Date

  • check beginning and end of article

  • look for “last updated”

  • generally, title is closest to article

  • use most recent copyrightdate (not 1997–2007)

  • be alert to external links


Quality too much missing l.jpg
Quality: Too much missing? change begins” (p. 140).

  • If several elements of a full citation are missing,is the source credible enough to use?

Road rage and teens. (n.d.). Retrieved August 28, 2007, from http://www.angelfire.com/al/alyplace/mystory.html


Sources for alop242 l.jpg
Sources for ALOP242 change begins” (p. 140).

AUTHOR

Daniel Pink

DATE

(2005)

TITLE

A whole new mind: Why right-brainers will rule the future.

PLACE OF PUBLICATION

New York

PUBLISHER

Penguin

Separate each elementwith punctuation.

In reference list, use sentence casefor book andarticle titles.


Follow standard model l.jpg
Follow standard model change begins” (p. 140).

REFERENCE ENTRY

Pink, D. (2005). A whole new mind: Why right-brainers will rule the future. New York: Penguin.

INTEXT(Pink, 2005)


Follow model w tweak l.jpg
Follow model w. tweak change begins” (p. 140).

REFERENCE ENTRY

Morin, E. (2001). The reform of thinking and education in the twenty-first century. In J. Binde (Ed.), Keys to the 21st century (pp. 202 - 205). Oxford, UK: Berghahn/UNESCO.

INTEXT (Morin, 2001)


Adapt monograph model l.jpg
Adapt monograph model change begins” (p. 140).

REFERENCE ENTRY

Gardner, H. (2007). Five minds for the future [summary].

Retrieved from http://www.execubooks.com

INTEXT(Gardner, 2007)


Follow closest model l.jpg
Follow closest model change begins” (p. 140).

REFERENCE ENTRY

Goleman, D. (2000, March-April). Leadership that gets results (Reprint 00204). Harvard Business Review,pp. 78-90. Available from Harvard Business Publishing: http://hbp.harvardbusiness.org/store/

INTEXT

(Goleman, 2000)


Adapt model l.jpg
Adapt model change begins” (p. 140).

REFERENCE ENTRY

Norton, R. (2006, November 4). How to train a cat to operate a light switch [Video file]. Video posted to http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vja83KLQXZs

INTEXT(Norton, 2006)


Apa and credibility l.jpg
APA and credibility change begins” (p. 140).

  • Which author do you trust?


Apa and credibility56 l.jpg

  • A. 5% change begins” (p. 140).

  • B. 18%

  • C. 39%

  • D. 73%

APA and credibility

  • What percentage of editors report having refused to publish a paper because of errors in APA style?


Impact of sloppy apa l.jpg
Impact of sloppy APA change begins” (p. 140).

  • What percentage of editors report having refused to publish a paper because of errors in APA style?

  • C. 39%

“… 39% of the respondents reported that they had returned a manuscript to an author purely for failing to adhere to APA style” (Brewer, Scherzer, Van Raalte, Petitpas, & Anderson, p. 266).

Brewer, B. W,. Scherzer, C. B., Van Raalte, J. L, Petitpas, A. J., & Anderson, M. B. (2001, March). American Psychologist, 56(3), 266–267.


Slide58 l.jpg

What’s the reward? change begins” (p. 140).

  • Professional credibility

  • Greater “confidence and competence” in writing

The editors of Mastering APA Style say:

The more you use APA style, the more mastery you will achieve. When you achieve mastery, you will have internalized good writing skills as well as the basic style rules. Thus in any subsequent writing you do, you will need to consult the Publication Manual less and less often and will approach any writing task with greater confidence and competence. (Gelfland & Walker, 2002, p. 5)


Recommended resource l.jpg
Recommended resource change begins” (p. 140).

http://writing.wisc.edu/Handbook/DocAPA.html

http://writing.wisc.edu/Handbook/DocAPA.html


Recommended resource60 l.jpg
Recommended resource change begins” (p. 140).

http://www.dianahacker.com/resdoc/p04_c09_o.html

or google Hacker APA query


Recommended resource61 l.jpg
Recommended resource change begins” (p. 140).

http://apastyle.org


Strategies for apa l.jpg
Strategies for APA change begins” (p. 140).

  • Find a model

  • Use a checklist

  • Read FAQs

  • ConsultAPA Manual

  • Take a tutorial

  • Visitapastyle.org

  • Let the computer do it

word-crafter.net/APA


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