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Amphibians and Herbicides A Literature Review. Heather Casjens Department of Pesticide Regulation February 14, 2001 Klamath, Calif. The Review. Approximately 5 databases Covers 30 years Websites Over 30 references pulled 17 studies most relevant. Mole Salamanders Long-toed salamander

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amphibians and herbicides a literature review

Amphibians and HerbicidesA Literature Review

Heather Casjens

Department of Pesticide Regulation

February 14, 2001

Klamath, Calif.

the review
The Review
  • Approximately 5 databases
  • Covers 30 years
  • Websites
  • Over 30 references pulled
  • 17 studies most relevant
salamanders in northern california
Mole Salamanders

Long-toed salamander

Northwestern salamander

Giant and Olympic Salamanders

Cope\'s giant salamander

Olympic salamander

Pacific giant salamander

Rocky Mountain giant salamander

Southern torrent salamander

Salamanders in Northern California
lungless salamanders
Lungless Salamanders
  • Arboreal salamander
  • Black salamander
  • California slender salamander
  • Clouded salamander
  • Del Norte salamander
  • Dunn\'s salamander
  • Ensatina
lungless salamanders cont
Lungless Salamanders (cont.)
  • Larch Mountain salamander
  • Oregon slender salamander
  • Plethodontid salamanders
  • Redback salamander
  • Siskiyou Mountains salamander
  • Van Dyke\'s salamander
  • Western redback salamander
newts frogs and toads in northern california
Newts, Frogs and Toads in Northern California
  • Roughskin newt
  • Cascades frog
  • Foothill yellow-legged frog
  • Pacific treefrog
  • Red-legged frog
  • Tailed frog
  • Western toad
study methods
Study Methods
  • Lab Experiments
    • Food chain experiment
    • Various life stages
    • Short-term exposure
  • Man-made Ponds
  • Test Concentrations of

0.8 ppb to 150,000 ppb

  • Population Studies
    • Uncut, logged & burned, and logged, burned and sprayed
possible effects of herbicides
Possible Effects of Herbicides
  • Behavior (in general)
  • Feeding Activity
  • Swimming Behavior
  • Growth / Body Size
  • Muscular Response
  • Morphological Abnormalities
  • Pathological Changes
  • Mortality
chemicals tested found to have effects
Chemicals Tested - Found to Have Effects
  • 2,4-D
    • pathological changes and mortality
    • 50,000 ppb; LT50 at 75,000 ppb is 72h for males and 132h in females (Pacces Zaffaroni et al. 1986)
    • no effect at 50,000 ppb (Cooke 1977)
  • Atrazine
    • pathological changes
    • 2800 ppb resulted in abdominal edema; LC50 2,800 to 23,000 ppb (24h); LC50 10,700,000 to 47,600,000 ppb (96 h)

(Howe et al. 1998)

  • Alachlor
    • LC50 3,300 to 11,500 ppb (96h) (Howe et al. 1998)
slide10
DDT (Insecticide)
    • behavior, growth/body size, and morphological abnormalities
    • 20 ppb in frog tadpoles; 5 ppb in toad tadpoles

(Cooke 1972)

  • Dieldrin (Insecticide)
    • behavior, growth/body size, and morphological abnormalities
    • 500 ppb (Cooke 1977)
  • Paraquat
    • swimming behavior, growth/body size, muscular response, morphological abnormalities, and mortality
    • food chain study, 1,011,000 ppb Myriophyllum

(Bauer-Dial and Dial 1995)

    • 500 ppb (Dial and Bauer 1984)
chemicals tested no effects found
Chemicals Tested - No Effects Found
  • Triclopyr
  • Dichlobenil
  • Diquat
  • Glyphosate
  • Hexazinone
comparison of concentration
From Klamath Study

Triclopyr

0.174 to 1.06 ppb

2,4-D

0.103 to 0.584 ppb

Atrazine and glyphosate

– No Detects

From Literature

Lowest concentrations tested was 0.8 ppb (2,4-D); no effects

Effects were found at 50,000 ppb for 2,4-D in one study

Comparison of Concentration
useful internet sites
Useful Internet Sites
  • biology.usgs.gov/frog.html
  • www.teraplanning.com
  • www.mp1-pwrc.usgs.gov/amphib/ frogsum.html
  • ice.ucdavis.edu/toads/enos.html
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