The Art and Science. of Grafting. Adam R. Wheeler Graduate Assistant University of Vermont. So What is Grafting?. - Grafting is the ART of connecting two pieces of living plant tissue so that they will unite, grow and develop as one plant. Grafting Terminology.
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The Art and Science
- Grafting is the ARTof connecting two pieces of living plant tissue so that they will unite, grow and develop as one plant
Scion - short piece of detached shoot containing at least one dormant bud. The upper portion of the graft producing stems and branches
Rootstock (understock or stock) - lower portion of the graft. Produces the root system of the plant.
Vascular cambium - an area of actively growing tissue located between the bark (phloem) and wood (xylem). The cambium of scion must be in close contact with cambium of rootstock.
- First documented by the Chinese as early as 5000 B.C. when Feng Li, a Chinese diplomat, began grafting peaches, almonds, persimmons, pears and apples as a commercial venture.
1) ToPerpetuate clones
- Many plants (beech,
eucalyptus, fir, oak and
apple) root very poorly
- Consequently, clones of
these species are often
maintained by grafting.
2) To Take Advantage of Rootstock Disease
and Pest Tolerance.
- Some rootstocks are able to withstand poor quality soils (compaction, poor drainage, dry, high salt levels) better than the scion’s root system.
4) Some Rootstocks Can Speed the Growth
of the Scion Into Early Maturity.
- Some shade trees (like Acer platanoides ‘Super Form’) can grow more quickly if grafted than if grown as a rooted cutting or even a seedling!
- With ornamentals, it is common to use an upright growing rootstock and a “weeping” or “dwarf” scion
8) Grafting can be used to change cultivars on established plants (topworking)
This method is used to: