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Alice in Wonderland. Settle down. Make-up. Two-in-one. Ring around the rosie. U-turn. Square dance. Day in, day out. A balanced meal. Tripod. Round of applause ...

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PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Woogies' - Kelvin_Ajay


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Introduction l.jpg
Introduction

  • The Domain of Animal Behavior

  • Why study animal behavior?

    • Curiosity,

    • Applications: e.g. survival, animal husbandry, wildlife management and conservation, invention such as medicinal plant,

  • Understanding ourselves, etc..


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Animal behavior

  • Ethology, comparative psychology, behavioral ecology, sociobiology

  • Ethology

    • branch of biology

    • originated from Europe

    • interested in naturally occurring behavior

    • observational rather than experimental


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  • 1973 Nobel price winners:

  • K. Lorenz - imprinting

  • N. Tinbergen – stickle-backed, black-headed gull

  • K. von Frisch - bee behavior and communication


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Imprinting

  • A form of learning

  • individuals exposed to certain key stimuli, usually during an early stage of behavioral development

  • form an association with the object and may later show sexual behavior toward similar objects


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  • Sign stimulus - the effective component of an action or object that triggers a fixed action pattern in an animal

  • Fixed action pattern - an innate, highly stereotyped response that is triggered by a well-defined, simple stimulus; once the pattern is activated, the response is performed entirely

  • Releaser - a sign stimulus given by one individual as a social signal to another


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Honeybee dances

  • Round dance < 50 m, waggle dance > 50 m

  • Direction of food = the angle of the straight-run v.s. vertical

  • # of complete dance circuit per unit of time

  • # of waggles during the straight-run portion

  • the frequency with which sound bursts are produced while dancing


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  • Comparative psychology

    • branch of experimental psychology

    • originated from N. America

    • influenced by Darwin and Pavlov

    • interested in species differences, especially in intelligence and learning


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Causes of behavior (4 questions) behavioral attributes of individuals in solving environmental obstacles to reproduction

  • Proximate/mechanistic (how?) – questions address mechanisms and structures within an animal that give rise to behavior

  • Examples:

    • What is the causal relationship between an animal’s genes and its behavior?


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  • Is the trait to some extent inherited from the parents? behavioral attributes of individuals in solving environmental obstacles to reproduction

  • How has the development of the animal (e.g. formation of neural pathways, organization of muscles, etc.) affected its behavioral abilities?

  • What stimuli trigger a response, and how are the stimuli received?


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  • Genetic/developmental behavioral attributes of individuals in solving environmental obstacles to reproduction – address the “construction” of anatomical/physiological systems that produce behavior

    • How do gene, environmental, and developmental processes interact to produce the “final” gene-neural-muscle systems that produce behavior

    • How to variation in gene/environment/ development affect behavior


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  • Physiological behavioral attributes of individuals in solving environmental obstacles to reproduction – address the functioning to sensory-neuron-muscular systems that produce behavior

    • How stimuli are perceived, integrated with other information

    • How decision-making system (e.g. brain, ganglia, etc.) sort information and respond

    • How effectors perceive/respond to information generated by the decision-making system


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  • Ultimate/evolutionary (why?) – behavioral attributes of individuals in solving environmental obstacles to reproduction questions try to identify and reconstruct the evolutionary history of a behavior

    • Has the behavior evolve over time?

    • If so, why did the changes take place?

    • What was the original step in the historical process that led to the current behavior


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  • Survival values/evolutionary history


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    Problems of Comparison immediate consequence does it have for the animal?

    • Are the variables biologically relevant?

    • How broad a taxonomic array of species should be included?

    • What type of analysis to use?

    • How to remove effects of confounding variables?

    • Problems of interpretation


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    Why infanticide? immediate consequence does it have for the animal?

    • Testing alternative hypotheses:

      • Social pathology - non-adaptive

      • Regulate population size - group selection

      • Provide food

      • Decrease competition

      • Increase opportunities for mating


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    S. Hrdy (Am. Sci. 65:40-49, 1977) immediate consequence does it have for the animal?

    • Infant death rate↑after♂takeover

    • Ultimate advantages to♂:

      • terminate♀pregnancy

      • destroy another♂'s litter

      • ♀ carries his own litter


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    Anim. Behav. 34:785-789, 1986 immediate consequence does it have for the animal?

    • Hanuman langurs take-over infanticide at mid- to low density (Kanha Tiger Reserve, India)

    • Troops: single♂or multi-♂s, ♀s and immatures

    • All♂bands


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    • Langur density: 46.15/km with high density, degraded habitats and few predators2

    • Troop density: 1.79/km2

    • Band density: 0.51/km2

    • 14 troops: 13 single AM & 1 w/ 3 AM

    • C-troop: 1 AM (AM23), 9~13 AF, 3~4 subF, ~12 immature

    • All M band Q: 13~16 AM, AM24 is the largest M


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    • Phase 3: AM30 of Q replace AM23, polarization end, AM30 frequent attack 3 AF w/ infant, and copulated frequently w/ mothers of 1st &3rd infants killed

    • AM30 most likely be the father of infants born next year

    • Take-over happened between the birth and the mating seasons

    • Take-over at mid to low density


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    Am. Nat. 121: 716-728, 1983 frequent attack 3 AF w/ infant, and copulated frequently w/ mothers of 1st &3rd infants killed

    • Lion in Tanzania (15 Prides): 1~7 AM + 2~18 AF + offspring

    • gestation period~110 days, mean litter size~2.3, cubs wean at 5~8 months, AF sexually active after cubs are ~18 months


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    • Female responses have at least 1 cub > 6 months

      • defending cubs

      • avoiding new male --> pride splitting, staying w/ own cubs

      • pseudo-estrus

      • spontaneous abortion (Bruce effect)

      • abandonment


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    • Effect of have at least 1 cub > 6 months♂take-over on♀ reproduction:

      • reduced fertility, conceived after 6~9 estrus cycles by new male

      • heightened sexual activity, initiate copulation more, and w/ more partners

    • Why?

      • penalize male for infanticide

      • increase paternal uncertainty

      • increase male competition

      • increase birth synchrony


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    • Assumptions: have at least 1 cub > 6 months

      • male>female, force on female

      • male can ID his competitor's v.s. his own offspring

    • 4 requirements (BioScience 46: 174- 177)

      • invading♂kill unrelated infants

      • bereaved♀will come into heat

      • invading♂will mate w/ that♀

      • new♂will sire more offspring than he would have if he had left the young of other male alone


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    Anim. Behav. 59: 689-694, 2000 have at least 1 cub > 6 months

    • Male infanticide in captive plains zebra, Equus burchelli

    • Two zoos in Czech Republic, 5 breeding herds of 4 subspecies

    • 3~8 breeding mares/herd, enclosure 800~1400 m2, food ad lib


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    Data: have at least 1 cub > 6 months

    • date of birth

    • date of death

    • mother and sire identity

    • date of introduction of a new male

    • foals injured by new males and needed vet. care and separation is regarded as dead

    • weaning time: 9 month as the criterion of survival


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    Foal mortality have at least 1 cub > 6 months

    Total dead survive

    Total 173 17 156

    Father 130 9 (6.9%) 93.1%

    New 43 8 (18.6%) 81.4%

    New/father99 11 88

    Father 59 3 (5.8%) 94.2%

    New 40 8 (20%) 80%


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    • No significant difference in pre- vs. postnatal mortality, or between sexes

    • The majority of foals that died when a new male joined were very young, those older than 7 months mostly survived

    • Probability of foal death was the greatest when the new males joined the herd just after conception, and


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